Carl M. Anderson

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Early severe stress and maltreatment produces a cascade of neurobiological events that have the potential to cause enduring changes in brain development. These changes occur on multiple levels, from neurohumoral (especially the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis) to structural and functional. The major structural consequences of early stress include(More)
Childhood maltreatment or abuse is a major risk factor for mood, anxiety, substance abuse, psychotic, and personality disorders, and it is associated with reduced adult hippocampal volume, particularly on the left side. Translational studies show that the key consequences of stress exposure on the hippocampus are suppression of neurogenesis in the dentate(More)
Severe early stress and maltreatment produces a cascade of events that have the potential to alter brain development. The first stage of the cascade involves the stress-induced programming of the glucocorticoid, noradrenergic, and vasopressin-oxytocin stress response systems to augment stress responses. These neurohumors then produce effects on(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the effects of methylphenidate on steady-state blood volume in the midline vermis of the cerebellum in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This region was selected as it has been observed to be significantly smaller in children with ADHD. Also, in(More)
Recent studies suggest that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) elicits a cascade of neurohumoral events that affect brain development and is also a risk factor for the later development of substance abuse. We hypothesize that the cerebellar vermis may be a key region linking these observations. The vermis has a protracted ontogeny and a high density of(More)
UNLABELLED Ion channel currents, neural firing patterns, and brain BOLD signals display 1/f-type fluctuations or fractal properties in time. By design, fMRI methods attempt to minimize the contribution of variance from low-frequency physiological 1/f-noise. New fMRI methods are described to visualize and measure 1/f-type BOLD fluctuations in volunteers(More)
Although the cerebellum is increasingly being viewed as a brain area involved in cognition, it typically is excluded from circuitry considered to mediate stimulant-associated behaviors since it is low in dopamine. Yet, the primate cerebellar vermis (lobules II-III and VIII-IX) has been reported to contain axonal dopamine transporter immunoreactivity(More)
Despite the recent rise in oral methylphenidate (MPH) abuse, few studies have characterized the time course of oral MPH brain effects in human subjects. Accordingly, this study assessed the hemodynamic effects of oral MPH effects in 11 healthy young adults (six women), by measuring brain transverse relaxation times (T2). T2 can be interpreted as a surrogate(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood abuse is a major risk factor for psychopathology. Previous studies have identified brain differences in maltreated individuals but have not focused on potential differences in network architecture. METHODS High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 265 unmedicated, right-handed 18- to 25-year-olds(More)
The amygdala is vulnerable to stress-dependent disruptions in neural development. Animal models have shown that stress increases dendritic arborization leading to larger amygdala volumes. Human studies of early stress and amygdala volume, however, remain inconclusive. This study compared amygdala volume in adults with childhood maltreatment to that in(More)