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Early severe stress and maltreatment produces a cascade of neurobiological events that have the potential to cause enduring changes in brain development. These changes occur on multiple levels, from neurohumoral (especially the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis) to structural and functional. The major structural consequences of early stress include(More)
Relapse rates averaging 41% in the first year after discharge among schizophrenic patients receiving maintenance neuroleptic treatment led to the development of two disorder-relevant treatments: a patient-centered behavioral treatment and a psychoeducational family treatment. Following hospital admission, 103 patients residing in high expressed emotion (EE)(More)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a highly heritable and prevalent neuropsychiatric disorder estimated to affect 6% of school-age children. Its clinical hallmarks are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, which often respond substantially to treatment with methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine. Etiological theories suggest a deficit in(More)
Severe early stress and maltreatment produces a cascade of events that have the potential to alter brain development. The first stage of the cascade involves the stress-induced programming of the glucocorticoid, noradrenergic, and vasopressin-oxytocin stress response systems to augment stress responses. These neurohumors then produce effects on(More)
In contrast to the classic signal transduction of D1 dopamine receptors in striatum or molecular expression systems, it has been reported that D1 receptor agonists do not stimulate adenylate cyclase in homogenates of microdissected nuclei of the amygdaloid complex. This article examines this phenomenon in detail to determine if lack of cAMP signaling in the(More)
We demonstrated earlier that a novel family psychoeducational approach and an individual social skills training approach designed for patients living in high-expressed emotion households each reduced schizophrenic relapse by one-half when compared with medication controls in the 1st year after hospital discharge. The combination of treatments resulted in no(More)
Childhood maltreatment or abuse is a major risk factor for mood, anxiety, substance abuse, psychotic, and personality disorders, and it is associated with reduced adult hippocampal volume, particularly on the left side. Translational studies show that the key consequences of stress exposure on the hippocampus are suppression of neurogenesis in the dentate(More)
Recent studies suggest that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) elicits a cascade of neurohumoral events that affect brain development and is also a risk factor for the later development of substance abuse. We hypothesize that the cerebellar vermis may be a key region linking these observations. The vermis has a protracted ontogeny and a high density of(More)
Despite the recent rise in oral methylphenidate (MPH) abuse, few studies have characterized the time course of oral MPH brain effects in human subjects. Accordingly, this study assessed the hemodynamic effects of oral MPH effects in 11 healthy young adults (six women), by measuring brain transverse relaxation times (T2). T2 can be interpreted as a surrogate(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the effects of methylphenidate on steady-state blood volume in the midline vermis of the cerebellum in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This region was selected as it has been observed to be significantly smaller in children with ADHD. Also, in(More)