Carl J. Payton

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Front crawl swimmers often restrict the number of breaths they take during a race because of the possible adverse effects of the breathing action on resistance or stroke mechanics. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in the kinematics of the trunk and upper extremity used during preferred-side breathing and breath-holding front(More)
In front crawl swimming, the hand and the corresponding forearm generate major propulsive forces. Such forces have been studied largely through experimental tests and more recently through the use of steady computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, the effect of the upper arm on the propulsive forces has generally not been taken into consideration. An(More)
Only a limited amount of research has gone into evaluating the contribution made by the upper arm to the propulsion of elite swimmers with an amputation at elbow level. With assistance of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling, the swimming technique of competitive arm amputee swimmers can be assessed through numerical simulations which test the(More)
This study examined the effect of swimming speed on inter-arm coordination and the inter-relationships between swimming speed, inter-arm coordination, and other stroke parameters, in a group of competitive unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers. Thirteen highly-trained swimmers were filmed underwater during a series of 25-m front crawl trials of(More)
Propulsive forces are important determinants of swimming performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the measurement error (uncertainty) in propulsive forces calculated from kinematic data. Ten operators digitized underwater video recordings of a breaststroke swimmer's right arm action. Four landmarks on the hand were digitized at 50 Hz and their(More)
This study examined changes in the propulsive force and stroke parameters of arm-amputee and able-bodied swimmers during tethered swimming. Eighteen well-trained female swimmers (nine unilateral arm amputees and nine able-bodied) were videotaped performing maximal-effort 30 s front-crawl swims, while attached to a load cell mounted on a pool wall. Tether(More)
Despite the importance of the Combined Event to the modern pentathlon competition, little is known about performance in the event. This study aimed to (i) identify the key variables affecting Combined Event shooting performance, and the extent to which these corresponded with those identified for precision shooting and (ii) investigate the impact of(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between swimming speed (SS), stroke length (SL), and stroke frequency (SF) for competitive single-arm amputee front crawl swimmers and assess their relationships with anthropometric characteristics. Thirteen highly trained swimmers (3 male, 10 female) were filmed underwater from a lateral view(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare arm-leg coordination and kinematics during 100 m breaststroke in 26 (8 female; 18 male) specialist breaststroke swimmers. Laps were recorded using three 50-Hz underwater cameras. Heart rate and blood lactate were measured pre- and post-swim. Arm-leg coordination was defined using coordination phases describing(More)