Carl J. Payton

Learn More
Front crawl swimmers often restrict the number of breaths they take during a race because of the possible adverse effects of the breathing action on resistance or stroke mechanics. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in the kinematics of the trunk and upper extremity used during preferred-side breathing and breath-holding front(More)
Propulsive forces are important determinants of swimming performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the measurement error (uncertainty) in propulsive forces calculated from kinematic data. Ten operators digitized underwater video recordings of a breaststroke swimmer's right arm action. Four landmarks on the hand were digitized at 50 Hz and their(More)
In front crawl swimming, the hand and the corresponding forearm generate major propulsive forces. Such forces have been studied largely through experimental tests and more recently through the use of steady computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, the effect of the upper arm on the propulsive forces has generally not been taken into consideration. An(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of simple non moulded flat based insoles on three-dimensional foot motion during normal walking. Excessive foot pronation is considered a major contributing factor to lower limb injuries. Moulded foot orthoses have been shown to decrease maximum foot eversion. Simple insoles are widely used in(More)
Only a limited amount of research has gone into evaluating the contribution made by the upper arm to the propulsion of elite swimmers with an amputation at elbow level. With assistance of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling, the swimming technique of competitive arm amputee swimmers can be assessed through numerical simulations which test the(More)
This study examined the effect of swimming speed on inter-arm coordination and the inter-relationships between swimming speed, inter-arm coordination, and other stroke parameters, in a group of competitive unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers. Thirteen highly-trained swimmers were filmed underwater during a series of 25-m front crawl trials of(More)
This study examined changes in the propulsive force and stroke parameters of arm-amputee and able-bodied swimmers during tethered swimming. Eighteen well-trained female swimmers (nine unilateral arm amputees and nine able-bodied) were videotaped performing maximal-effort 30 s front-crawl swims, while attached to a load cell mounted on a pool wall. Tether(More)
Despite the importance of the Combined Event to the modern pentathlon competition, little is known about performance in the event. This study aimed to (i) identify the key variables affecting Combined Event shooting performance, and the extent to which these corresponded with those identified for precision shooting and (ii) investigate the impact of(More)
Due to the difficulty of measuring forces and torques acting on a swimmer during mid-pool swimming, an inverse dynamics approach is required. Personalised body segment parameter (BSP) data enabling calculation of net forces and torques can be obtained using the elliptical zone method. The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability of estimating(More)