Carl J. Lombard

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To determine whether there is a prognostic value in the percentage normal sperm morphologic features in a human in vitro fertilization (IVF) program, the authors conducted a prospective study in women with bilateral tubal damage. Based on the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa, the patients were divided into four groups: group I, normal(More)
BACKGROUND Robust evidence of the effectiveness of task shifting of antiretroviral therapy (ART) from doctors to other health workers is scarce. We aimed to assess the effects on mortality, viral suppression, and other health outcomes and quality indicators of the Streamlining Tasks and Roles to Expand Treatment and Care for HIV (STRETCH) programme, which(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the prevalence of bullying behavior in adolescents from Cape Town and Durban, South Africa, and the association of these behaviors with levels of violence and risk behavior. METHOD Five thousand and seventy-four adolescent schoolchildren in grade 8 (mean age 14.2 years) and grade 11 (mean age 17.4 years) at 72 Government schools in(More)
In this study, the semen analysis results of a fertile population were compared with those from a subfertile population, in order to establish normal cut-off values for the standard semen parameters with the aid of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The fertile group comprised healthy males (n = 107) without any history of fertility(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is a major public-health problem in South Africa, made worse by poor adherence to and frequent interruption of treatment. Direct observation (DO) of tuberculosis patients taking their drugs is supposed to improve treatment completion and outcome. We compared DO with self-supervision, in which patients on the same drug regimen are not(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis control programs place an almost exclusive emphasis on adults with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis, because they are most infectious. However, children contribute a significant proportion of the global tuberculosis caseload and experience considerable tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality, but few children in endemic areas(More)
The prediction of human fertilization is an important aspect of research protocols dealing with male fertility. Sperm DNA has been reported to be an indicator of human sperm fertility potential. The Acridine Orange test for evaluation of sperm DNA has been employed during the present study to determine its relationship with human sperm morphology and(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the impact of isoniazid prophylaxis on mortality and incidence of tuberculosis in children with HIV. DESIGN Two centre prospective double blind placebo controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS Children aged > or =8 weeks with HIV. INTERVENTIONS Isoniazid or placebo given with co-trimoxazole either daily or three times a week. SETTING(More)
This study aimed to disentangle the influence of depression and self-esteem on suicidal behaviour in adolescence. Grades 8 and 11 students in Cape Town, South Africa (n = 939) completed questionnaires assessing suicidal ideation and behaviour, depression, and self-esteem with respect to family, peers, school, sports/athletics, body image and global(More)
The purpose of this article is to describe mortality of women from intimate partner violence (IPV) in South Africa using a retrospective national study in a proportionate random sample of 25 mortuaries. Homicides identified from mortuary, autopsy, and police records. There were 3,797 female homicides, of which 50.3% were from IPV. The mortality rate from(More)