Carl H. Campbell

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Malaria rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs) can increase availability of laboratory-based diagnosis and improve the overall management of febrile patients in malaria endemic areas. In preparation to scale-up RDTs in health facilities in Malawi, an evaluation of four RDTs to help guide national-level decision-making was conducted. A cross sectional study of four(More)
We evaluated a commercial point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test for assessing Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence in areas at risk. Overall, 4,405 school-age children in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda provided urine for POC-CCA testing and stool for Kato-Katz assays. By latent class analysis, one POC-CCA test(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the feasibility of distributing insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) through routine immunization services, to increase ownership and use of ITNs among high-risk groups, whereas maintaining or improving timely completion of routine vaccinations. METHODS Free ITNs were provided with timely completion of routine vaccinations in two(More)
Little is known about the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) in areas with intense malaria transmission such as sub-Saharan Africa. In Malawi, IRS with lambda-cyhalothrin has been applied annually in an area of intense year-long transmission since 2007. We evaluated the impact of IRS on parasitemia and anemia prevalence in children less than five(More)
We estimated the frequency of clinically diagnosed Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (CTX) in Blantyre District, Malawi. Cases were detected by passive surveillance at 22 health centers from March 2001 through September 2002. Denominators were estimated(More)
BACKGROUND Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) has become a central focus for the Roll Back Malaria campaign, and many countries in Africa have now embarked on large-scale public health programmes aimed at making ITNs available to those at greatest risk. However, the effectiveness of these programmes has rarely been evaluated. METHOD We conducted a(More)
Prompt access to effective treatment for malaria is unacceptably low in Malawi. Less than 20% of children under the age of five with fever receive appropriate anti-malarial treatment within 24 hours of fever onset. This study assessed socio-cultural factors associated with delayed treatment of children with fever in Mwanza district, Malawi. It was a(More)
Pretest and posttest counseling have become standard components of prevention-oriented human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing programs. However, not all persons who receive pretest counseling and testing return for posttest counseling. Records of 557,967 clients from January through December 1990, representing more than 40 percent of all(More)
The AIDS Information Center (AIC) was established in Kampala, Uganda in 1990 in response to increasing interest by members of the general public who wished to know their HIV serostatus. By 1996, >300,000 clients had been seen. HIV serologic testing was performed at a central laboratory and results reported back to AIC after 2 weeks. Approximately 25% of(More)
Use of an insecticide-treated net (ITN) is now the central focus for the Roll Back Malaria campaign, and disease-endemic countries have embarked on large-scale ITN distribution programs. We assessed the impact of an ITN social marketing program on clinical malaria in children less than five years of age. A case-control study was undertaken at Ndirande(More)