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Keyphrases provide semantic metadata that summarize and characterize documents. Kea is an algorithm for automatically extracting keyphrases from text. We use a large test corpus to evaluate its effectiveness in terms of how many author-assigned keyphrases are correctly identified. The system is simple, robust, and publicly available. Kea identifies(More)
Keyphrases are an important means of document summarization, clustering, and topic search. Only a small minority of documents have author-assigned keyphrases, and manually assigning keyphrases to existing documents is very laborious. Therefore it is highly desirable to automate the keyphrase extraction process. This paper shows that a simple procedure for(More)
Supporting awareness of others is an idea that holds promise for improving the usability of real-time distributed groupware. However, there is little principled information available about awareness that can be used by groupware designers. In this article, we develop a descriptive theory of awareness for the purpose of aiding groupware design, focusing on(More)
Workspace awareness is knowledge about others' interaction with a shared workspace. Groupware systems provide only limited information about other participants, often compromising workspace awareness. This paper describes a usability study of several widgets designed to help maintain awareness in groupware workspaces. These widgets included a miniature(More)
Real-time educational groupware systems allow physically separated learners to work together in a shared virtual workspace at the same time. These systems do not yet approach the interaction richness of a face-to-face learning situation. In particular, one element poorly supported is workspace awareness: the up-to-the-minute knowledge a student requires(More)
Users of synchronous groupware systems act boti as individual and as members of a group, and designers must try to support both roles. However, the requirements of individuals and groups often cofic$ forcing designers to support one at the expense of the other. me tradeoff is particularly evident in the design of interaction @hniques for shared workspaces.(More)
We introduce a conceptual framework that articulates the mechanics of collaboration for shared-workspace groupware: the low level actions and interactions that must be carried out to complete a task in a shared manner. These include communication, coordination, planning, monitoring, assistance, and protection. The framework also includes three general(More)