Carl F. Marrs

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The proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases in the United States has increased from 16% of tuberculosis cases, in 1991, to 20%, in 2001. To determine associations between the demographic, clinical, and life style characteristics of patients with tuberculosis and the occurrence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, a retrospective case-control study was(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the distribution of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance genes and the role of horizontal gene transfer and clonal expansion in recent increases of antibiotic resistance rates among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Europe and Canada. METHODS We identified antibiotic resistance alleles sul1, sul2, sul3 and dfr along with type 1(More)
The occurrence and spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria is a pressing public health problem. The emergence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is common in areas where antibiotics are heavily used, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria also increasingly occur in aquatic environments. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the(More)
Escherichia coli causes most urinary tract infections (UTIs) in ambulatory populations. Several bacterial virulence factors occur more frequently among urinary E. coli isolates than among fecal isolates, but none have been reported to predict risk of second UTIs. DNA hybridization was used to characterize the bacterial virulence profiles of urinary E. coli(More)
Clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be divided into three principal genetic groups based on the single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the katG gene codon 463 and the gyrA gene codon 95. One subgroup of genetic group 1, the Beijing/W lineage, has been widely studied because of its worldwide distribution and association with outbreaks. In order to(More)
Because uropathogenic Escherichia coli are better adapted than other E. coli to the urethra, periurethra, and vagina, the authors reasoned that uropathogenic E. coli would be more likely than commensal E. coli to be shared between sex partners. In this 1996-1999 Michigan study, the genetic identity of E. coli isolated from 166 women with E. coli urinary(More)
BACKGROUND Children attending day-care centers (DCCs) are at risk for Haemophilus influenzae nasopharyngeal colonization and acute otitis media. The degree to which a given strain circulates within a day-care center and the heterogeneity of strains among DCCs in a geographic area are not well-characterized. This study describes the prevalence rates of H.(More)
Escherichia coli is the major aetiological agent of urinary tract infections (UTI). Like diarrhoeagenic strains of E. coli, uropathogenic isolates possess virulence determinants that distinguish them from commensal strains and allow them to produce the clinical manifestations associated with UTI. Several autotransporter proteins have been associated with(More)
PE_PGRS 33, one of about 60 PE_PGRS genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, encodes a surface-expressed protein that may be involved in the antigenic variation of M. tuberculosis strains and evasion of the host immune system. While genetic differences between the PE_PGRS 33 genes of H37Rv and CDC 1551 have been noted, genetic variation in this gene(More)