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This paper introduces a fast algorithm for randomized computation of a low-rank Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) of a matrix. Here we consider this matrix to represent the development of a spatial grid through time e.g. data from a static video source. DMD was originally introduced in the fluid mechanics community, but is also suitable for motion detection(More)
Military antisubmarine sonars produce intense sounds within the hearing range of most clupeid fish. The behavioral reactions of overwintering herring (Clupea harengus) to sonar signals of two different frequency ranges (1-2 and 6-7 kHz), and to playback of killer whale feeding sounds, were tested in controlled exposure experiments in Vestfjorden, Norway,(More)
Human activities that impact wildlife do not necessarily remove individuals from populations. They may also change individual behaviour in ways that have sublethal effects. This has driven interest in developing analytical tools that predict the population consequences of short-term behavioural responses. In this study, we incorporate empirical information(More)
There are many developments for offshore renewable energy around the United Kingdom whose installation typically produces large amounts of far-reaching noise, potentially disturbing many marine mammals. The potential to affect the favorable conservation status of many species means extensive environmental impact assessment requirements for the licensing of(More)
Loud anthropogenic underwater noise, such as that associated with sonar operations, pile driving, or seismic surveys, can cause behavioral and physiological disturbance to many animals that may affect their survival or ability to breed. However, no formal framework for assessing the population-level consequences of this disturbance is currently available.(More)
Intense underwater sounds caused by military sonar, seismic surveys, and pile driving can harm acoustically sensitive marine mammals. Many jurisdictions require such activities to undergo marine mammal impact assessments to guide mitigation. However, the ability to assess impacts in a rigorous, quantitative way is hindered by large knowledge gaps concerning(More)
The use of high frequency sonar is now commonplace in the marine environment. Most marine mammals rely on sound to navigate, and for detecting prey, and there is the potential that the acoustic signals of sonar could cause behavioral responses. To investigate this, we carried out behavioral response tests with grey seals to two sonar systems (200 and 375(More)
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