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Site-specific recognition of DNA in eukaryotic organisms depends on the arrangement of nucleosomes in chromatin. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ISW1a and related chromatin remodelling factors are implicated in establishing the nucleosome repeat during replication and altering nucleosome position to affect gene activity. Here we have solved the(More)
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) have the unique ability to adsorb to ice and inhibit its growth. Many organisms ranging from fish to bacteria use AFPs to retard freezing or lessen the damage incurred upon freezing and thawing. The ice-binding mechanism of the long linear alpha-helical type I AFPs has been attributed to their regularly spaced polar residues(More)
The interaction of proteins with ice is poorly understood and difficult to study, partly because ice is transitory and can present many binding surfaces, and partly because structures have been determined for only two ice-binding proteins. This paper focuses on one of these, a 66-residue antifreeze protein (AFP) from eel pout. The high resolution X-ray(More)
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) depress the freezing point of aqueous solutions by binding to and inhibiting the growth of ice. Whereas the ice-binding surface of some fish AFPs is suggested by their linear, repetitive, hydrogen bonding motifs, the 66-amino-acid-long Type III AFP has a compact, globular fold without any obvious periodicity. In the structure, 9(More)
OBJECTIVE Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are inversely correlated with the risk of developing coronary heart disease. Hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) affects plasma HDL cholesterol levels, with estrogen increasing HDL cholesterol levels and progestins blunting this effect. This study was designed to assess the mechanism(More)
It has been suggested that cooperative interactions between antifreeze proteins (AFPs) on the ice surfaces are required for complete inhibition of ice crystal growth. To test this hypothesis, a 7-kDa type III AFP was linked through its N-terminus to thioredoxin (12 kDa) or maltose-binding protein (42 kDa). The resultant 20-kDa and 50-kDa fusion proteins(More)
BACKGROUND Antifreeze proteins are found in certain fish inhabiting polar sea water. These proteins depress the freezing points of blood and body fluids below that of the surrounding sea water by binding to and inhibiting the growth of seed ice crystals. The proteins are believed to bind irreversibly to growing ice crystals in such a way as to change the(More)
The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), Lp(a) cholesterol, and of apo(a) isoform size to prospective coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma Lp(a) and Lp(a) cholesterol levels, and apo(a) isoform size were measured at examination cycle 5 in subjects participating in the Framingham(More)
Some cold water marine fishes avoid cellular damage because of freezing by expressing antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that bind to ice and inhibit its growth; one such protein is the globular type III AFP from eel pout. Despite several studies, the mechanism of ice binding remains unclear because of the difficulty in modeling the AFP-ice interaction. To further(More)
Mutation of residues at the ice-binding site of type III antifreeze protein (AFP) not only reduced antifreeze activity as indicated by the failure to halt ice crystal growth, but also altered ice crystal morphology to produce elongated hexagonal bipyramids. In general, the c axis to a axis ratio of the ice crystal increased from approximately 2 to over 10(More)