Carl D. Smith

Learn More
The medial preoptic area (MPOA), ventral pallidum (VP), and nucleus accumbens (NA) receive dopaminergic afferents and are involved in maternal behavior. Experiments investigated whether dopamine (DA) receptor antagonism in NA disrupts maternal behavior, determined the type of DA receptor involved, and investigated the involvement of drug spread to VP or(More)
The postpartum period is associated with many behavioral changes, including a reduction in anxiety, which is thought to be necessary for mothers' ability to appropriately care for infants. In laboratory rats, this reduction in anxiety requires recent contact with pups, but areas of the brain where infant contact influences neural activity to reduce anxiety(More)
Emotional hyperreactivity can inhibit maternal responsiveness in female rats and other animals. Maternal behavior in postpartum rats is disrupted by increasing norepinephrine release in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTv) with the α2-autoreceptor antagonist, yohimbine, or the more selective α2-autoreceptor antagonist, idazoxan (Smith et(More)
Maternal behavior in laboratory rats requires a network of brain structures including the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTv) and medial preoptic area (mPOA). Neurotransmitter systems in the BSTv and mPOA influencing maternal behaviors are not well understood, although norepinephrine is an excellent candidate because the BSTv contains the(More)
Several experiments explored the roles of nucleus accumbens (NA), ventral pallidum (VP) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) in the regulation of maternal behavior in rats. A preliminary experiment found that bilateral radiofrequency lesions of medial NA did not disrupt maternal behavior. Experiment 1 found that bilateral infusions of muscimol into VP, but not(More)
To investigate metabolic disturbances in an animal model of human malaria, four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were infected with Plasmodium coatneyi, a parasite which induces cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes. When moribund or the parasitaemia had plateaued, the monkeys were sacrificed (3 animals) or treated with chloroquine (1 animal). Blood and(More)
Primaquine is the only currently available drug effective against persistent tissue stages of relapsing malaria in humans. Causal prophylactic and radical curative properties of WR182393 (a guanylhydrazone) were investigated as part of an effort to evaluate alternatives to primaquine in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)/Plasmodium cynomolgi test model. The(More)
Direct fed microbials and probiotics are used to promote health in livestock and poultry; however, their mechanism of action is still poorly understood. We previously reported that direct fed microbial supplementation in young broilers reduced ileal respiration without changing whole-body energy expenditure. The current studies were conducted to further(More)
New drugs for causal prophylaxis of malaria are needed. A proguanil/sulfamethoxazole combination was investigated using a rhesus monkey model (Macaca mulatta infected with Plasmodium cynomolgi) to determine whether causal prophylaxis could be achieved. When a five-day regimen of proguanil (40 mg/kg/day) combined with sulfamethoxazole (100 mg/kg/day) was(More)
Following rodent surveys in a rice-growing area of central Thailand where we found Bandicota savilei, B. indica, and Rattus rattus infected with Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, we performed a study of pathogenesis of R. tsutsugamushi in laboratory-reared B. savilei. Eight animals were injected with saline and 19 animals were injected with 4.0 x 10(6) mouse 50%(More)