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In April 2008, a nucleotide-sequence-based, complete genome classification system was developed for group A rotaviruses (RVs). This system assigns a specific genotype to each of the 11 genome segments of a particular RV strain according to established nucleotide percent cutoff values. Using this approach, the genome of individual RV strains are given the(More)
BACKGROUND Diarrhea is the third leading infectious cause of death worldwide and is estimated to be responsible for approximately 2 million deaths a year. While many infectious causes of diarrhea have been established, approximately 40% of all diarrhea cases are of unknown etiology. In an effort to identify novel viruses that may be causal agents of(More)
Recently, a classification system was proposed for rotaviruses in which all the 11 genomic RNA segments are used (Matthijnssens et al. in J Virol 82:3204-3219, 2008). Based on nucleotide identity cut-off percentages, different genotypes were defined for each genome segment. A nomenclature for the comparison of complete rotavirus genomes was considered in(More)
BACKGROUND Astroviruses infect a variety of mammals and birds and are causative agents of diarrhea in humans and other animal hosts. We have previously described the identification of several sequence fragments with limited sequence identity to known astroviruses in a stool specimen obtained from a child with acute diarrhea, suggesting that a novel virus(More)
Noroviruses are highly infectious and are the most common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks. Genotype II.4 strains have been the dominant type identified in adults, however the genotype distribution in children is less clearly defined. This study aimed to detect and genotype norovirus strains infecting children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in(More)
Noroviruses are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis. Genotype II.3 is one of the most frequently detected noroviruses associated with sporadic infections. We studied the evolution of the major capsid gene from seven archival GII.3 noroviruses collected during a cross-sectional study at the Children's Hospital in Washington, DC, from 1975(More)
During a 2-year study of diarrhea among children in Blantyre, Malawi, greater than 50% of rotavirus strains genotyped by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction possessed previously unrecognized combinations of the neutralization proteins VP7 and VP4. Serotype G8 rotaviruses, which have been identified recently in several African countries,(More)
The neutralization epitopes of the VP7 of human rotavirus RV-4 were studied by using five neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibodies to select virus variants resistant to neutralization by each of the antibodies. Antibody resistance patterns and sequence analysis of the RV-4 variants revealed that at least four sites on VP7, located at amino acids 94 (region(More)
We report the first detection of P[14], G8 rotaviruses isolated in Egypt from the stool of children participating in a 3 year study of rotavirus epidemiology. Two strains, EGY1850 and EGY2295, were characterized by a serotyping enzyme immunoassay (EIA), virus neutralization, and sequence analysis of the genes encoding VP7 and the VP8* portion of the VP4(More)
Globally, norovirus is associated with approximately one-fifth of all diarrhea cases, with similar prevalence in both children and adults, and is estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths annually in developing countries. Norovirus is an important pathogen in a number of high-priority domains: it is the most common cause of diarrheal episodes globally, the(More)