Carl D Kirkwood

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In April 2008, a nucleotide-sequence-based, complete genome classification system was developed for group A rotaviruses (RVs). This system assigns a specific genotype to each of the 11 genome segments of a particular RV strain according to established nucleotide percent cutoff values. Using this approach, the genome of individual RV strains are given the(More)
Recently, a classification system was proposed for rotaviruses in which all the 11 genomic RNA segments are used (Matthijnssens et al. in J Virol 82:3204–3219, 2008). Based on nucleotide identity cut-off percentages, different genotypes were defined for each genome segment. A nomenclature for the comparison of complete rotavirus genomes was considered in(More)
The development of rotavirus vaccines that are based on heterotypic or serotype-specific immunity has prompted many countries to establish programs to assess the disease burden associated with rotavirus infection and the distribution of rotavirus strains. Strain surveillance helps to determine whether the most prevalent local strains are likely to be(More)
Among 1316 rotavirus specimens collected during strain surveillance in the United States from 1996 to 1999, most strains (95%) belonged to the common types (G1 to G4 and G9), while 5% were mixed infections of common serotypes, rare strains, or not completely typeable. In this report, 2 rare (P[9],G3) and 2 partially typeable (P[6],G?; P[9],G?) strains from(More)
Astroviruses infect a variety of mammals and birds and are causative agents of diarrhea in humans and other animal hosts. We have previously described the identification of several sequence fragments with limited sequence identity to known astroviruses in a stool specimen obtained from a child with acute diarrhea, suggesting that a novel virus was present.(More)
Diarrhea is the third leading infectious cause of death worldwide and is estimated to be responsible for approximately 2 million deaths a year. While many infectious causes of diarrhea have been established, approximately 40% of all diarrhea cases are of unknown etiology. In an effort to identify novel viruses that may be causal agents of diarrhea, we used(More)
BACKGROUND Rotavirus infection is thought to be confined to the intestine. Reports of rotavirus RNA in the cerebral spinal fluid and serum of children infected with rotavirus suggest the possibility that rotavirus escapes the intestine into the circulatory system. We assessed whether rotavirus antigen, RNA, or both, were present in serum samples from(More)
We recently established a rotavirus strain surveillance system in the United States to monitor the prevalent G serotypes before and after the anticipated implementation of a vaccination program against rotavirus and to identify the emergence of uncommon strains. In this study, we examined 348 rotavirus strains obtained in 1996 to 1997 from children with(More)
BACKGROUND The use of molecular methods for rotavirus characterisation provides increased sensitivity for typing, and allows the identification of putative reassortant strains. However, due to the constant accumulation of point mutations through genetic drift; and to the emergence of novel genotypes; and possibly zoonotic transmission and subsequent(More)
The neutralization epitopes of the VP7 of human rotavirus RV-4 were studied by using five neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibodies to select virus variants resistant to neutralization by each of the antibodies. Antibody resistance patterns and sequence analysis of the RV-4 variants revealed that at least four sites on VP7, located at amino acids 94 (region(More)