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In female mammals one of the X chromosomes is rendered almost completely transcriptionally inactive to equalize expression of X-linked genes in males and females. The inactive X chromosome is distinguished from its active counterpart by its condensed appearance in interphase nuclei, late replication, altered DNA methylation, hypoacetylation of histone H4,(More)
A repeat sequence 682 base pairs (bp) long produced by cleavage of human DNA with Xba I restriction enzyme is composed of four tandemly arranged subunits with lengths of 171, 170, 171, and 170 bp each. The sequence organization of the 682 bp Xba I repeat bears a striking resemblance to other complex satellite DNAs of primates, including the Eco RI human(More)
The histone macroH2A1.2 has been implicated in X chromosome inactivation on the basis of its accumulation on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) of adult female mammals. We have established the timing of macroH2A1.2 association with the Xi relative to the onset of X-inactivation in differentiating murine embryonic stem (ES) cells using immuno-RNA fluorescence in(More)
The pairing of sex chromosomes during meiosis in male mammals is associated with ongoing heterochromatinization and X inactivation. This process occurs in a specific area of the nucleus that can be discerned morphologically: the sex vesicle or XY-body. In contrast to X inactivation in the somatic cells of female mammals the reasons for X inactivation in the(More)
MacroH2A is a novel nucleosomal core histone that contains a large nonhistone region and a region that closely resembles a full length histone H2A. We have cloned a cDNA that contains the entire coding region of macroH2A1.2, one of the two identified subtypes of macroH2A1. MacroH2A1.2 was found to differ from the other known subtype, macroH2A1.1, in a(More)
The chromatin template imposes an epigenetic barrier during the process of somatic cell reprogramming. Using fibroblasts derived from macroH2A double knockout (dKO) mice, here we show that these histone variants act cooperatively as a barrier to induced pluripotency. Through manipulation of macroH2A isoforms, we further demonstrate that macroH2A2 is the(More)
We describe a new human subfamily of alpha satellite DNA. The restriction endonuclease XbaI cleaves this subfamily into a collection of fragments which are heterogeneous with respect to size. We compared the sequences of 6 clones from four different XbaI size classes. Clones from a single size class were not necessarily more related than clones from(More)
MacroH2As are core histone proteins with a hybrid structure consisting of a domain that closely resembles a full-length histone H2A followed by a large nonhistone domain. We recently showed that one of the macroH2A subtypes, macroH2A1.2, is concentrated in the inactive X chromosome in adult female mammals. Here we examine the timing of the association of(More)
macroH2A histone variants have been implicated to function in gene silencing by several studies, including ones showing a preferential association of macroH2A on the inactive X chromosome. To examine macroH2A function in vivo, we knocked out macroH2A1. macroH2A1 knockout mice are viable and fertile. A broad screen of liver gene expression showed no evidence(More)