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In female mammals one of the X chromosomes is rendered almost completely transcriptionally inactive to equalize expression of X-linked genes in males and females. The inactive X chromosome is distinguished from its active counterpart by its condensed appearance in interphase nuclei, late replication, altered DNA methylation, hypoacetylation of histone H4,(More)
The histone macroH2A1.2 has been implicated in X chromosome inactivation on the basis of its accumulation on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) of adult female mammals. We have established the timing of macroH2A1.2 association with the Xi relative to the onset of X-inactivation in differentiating murine embryonic stem (ES) cells using immuno-RNA fluorescence in(More)
The chromatin template imposes an epigenetic barrier during the process of somatic cell reprogramming. Using fibroblasts derived from macroH2A double knockout (dKO) mice, here we show that these histone variants act cooperatively as a barrier to induced pluripotency. Through manipulation of macroH2A isoforms, we further demonstrate that macroH2A2 is the(More)
macroH2A histone variants have been implicated to function in gene silencing by several studies, including ones showing a preferential association of macroH2A on the inactive X chromosome. To examine macroH2A function in vivo, we knocked out macroH2A1. macroH2A1 knockout mice are viable and fertile. A broad screen of liver gene expression showed no evidence(More)
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