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The dynamic I-V curve method was recently introduced for the efficient experimental generation of reduced neuron models. The method extracts the response properties of a neuron while it is subject to a naturalistic stimulus that mimics in vivo-like fluctuating synaptic drive. The resulting history-dependent, transmembrane current is then projected onto a(More)
Internal brain states affect sensory perception, cognition, and learning. Many neocortical areas exhibit changes in the pattern and synchrony of neuronal activity during quiet versus active behaviors. Active behaviors are typically associated with desynchronized cortical dynamics. Increased thalamic firing contributes importantly to desynchronize mouse(More)
Facial muscles drive whisker movements, which are important for active tactile sensory perception in mice and rats. These whisker muscles are innervated by cholinergic motor neurons located in the lateral facial nucleus. The whisker motor neurons receive synaptic inputs from premotor neurons, which are located within the brain stem, the midbrain, and the(More)
GABAergic neurons are a minor fraction of the neocortical neuronal population, but they are highly diverse in their features. The GABAergic neurons can be divided into three largely non-overlapping groups, defined through the expression of ionotropic serotonin receptors, parvalbumin or somatostatin. Membrane potential recordings from these genetically(More)
Analysis of brain ultrastructure using electron microscopy typically relies on chemical fixation. However, this is known to cause significant tissue distortion including a reduction in the extracellular space. Cryo fixation is thought to give a truer representation of biological structures, and here we use rapid, high-pressure freezing on adult mouse(More)
UNLABELLED The basal forebrain (BF) houses major ascending projections to the entire neocortex that have long been implicated in arousal, learning, and attention. The disruption of the BF has been linked with major neurological disorders, such as coma and Alzheimer's disease, as well as in normal cognitive aging. Although it is best known for its(More)
The fluorescence decay of high-affinity nonratiometric Ca2+ indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1 (OGB-1) is analyzed with unprecedented temporal resolution in the two-photon excitation regime. A triple exponential decay is shown to best fit the fluorescence dynamics of OGB-1. We provide a model for accurate measurements of the free Ca2+ concentration and(More)
Goal-directed behavior involves distributed neuronal circuits in the mammalian brain, including diverse regions of neocortex. However, the cellular basis of long-range cortico-cortical signaling during goal-directed behavior is poorly understood. Here, we recorded membrane potential of excitatory layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in primary somatosensory barrel(More)
Voltage-sensitive dyes can be used to image cortical network function with millisecond temporal resolution and with a horizontal spatial resolution of approximately 50 µm. This imaging technique can be combined with whole-cell patch-clamp 437 measurement of membrane potential followed by the anatomical analysis of neu-ronal morphology. Together, such(More)