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Mammalian retinal degenerations initiated by gene defects in rods, cones or the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) often trigger loss of the sensory retina, effectively leaving the neural retina deafferented. The neural retina responds to this challenge by remodeling, first by subtle changes in neuronal structure and later by large-scale reorganization.(More)
Many photoreceptor degenerations initially affect rods, secondarily leading to cone death. It has long been assumed that the surviving neural retina is largely resistant to this sensory deafferentation. New evidence from fast retinal degenerations reveals that subtle plasticities in neuronal form and connectivity emerge early in disease. By screening mature(More)
Circuitry mapping of metazoan neural systems is difficult because canonical neural regions (regions containing one or more copies of all components) are large, regional borders are uncertain, neuronal diversity is high, and potential network topologies so numerous that only anatomical ground truth can resolve them. Complete mapping of a specific network(More)
PURPOSE A connectome is a comprehensive description of synaptic connectivity for a neural domain. Our goal was to produce a connectome data set for the inner plexiform layer of the mammalian retina. This paper describes our first retinal connectome, validates the method, and provides key initial findings. METHODS We acquired and assembled a 16.5 terabyte(More)
Heterotrimeric kinesin-II is a molecular motor localized to the inner segment, connecting cilium and axoneme of mammalian photoreceptors. Our purpose was to identify the role of kinesin-II in anterograde intraflagellar transport by photoreceptor-specific deletions of kinesin family member 3A (KIF3A), its obligatory motor subunit. In cones lacking KIF3A,(More)
Connectomics is a strategy for mapping complex neural networks based on high-speed automated electron optical imaging, computational assembly of neural data volumes, web-based navigational tools to explore 10(12)-10(15) byte (terabyte to petabyte) image volumes, and annotation and markup tools to convert images into rich networks with cellular metadata.(More)
Analysis of the rabbit retinal connectome RC1 reveals that the division between the ON and the OFF inner plexiform layer (IPL) is not structurally absolute. ON cone bipolar cells make noncanonical axonal synapses onto specific targets and receive amacrine cell synapses in the nominal OFF layer, creating novel motifs, including inhibitory crossover networks.(More)
We describe a computationally efficient and robust, fully-automatic method for large-scale electron microscopy image registration. The proposed method is able to construct large image mosaics from thousands of smaller, overlapping tiles with unknown or uncertain positions, and to align sections from a serial section capture into a common coordinate system.(More)