Carl Anderson

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A threshold reinforcement model in insect societies is explored over a range of colony sizes and levels of task demand to examine their effects upon worker polyethism. We find that increasing colony size while keeping the demand proportional to the colony size causes an increase in the differentiation among individuals in their activity levels, thus(More)
Nectar collection in the honey-bee is partitioned. Foragers collect nectar and take it to the nest, where they transfer it to receiver bees who then store it in cells. Because nectar is a fluctuating and unpredictable resource, changes in worker allocation are required to balance the work capacities of foragers and receivers so that the resource is(More)
To understand the functioning and organizational complexity of insect societies, a combination of different approaches is needed. One such approach, which we adopt in this study, is to consider tasks in insect societies not based upon their function, as is traditional, but upon their structure. Four types of task in insect societies have been proposed:(More)
A task is said to be partitioned when it is split into two or more sequential stages and material is passed from one worker to another; for instance, one individual collects a material from a source and passes it to another for transportation back to the nest. In this study, we review the existence of task partitioning in leafcutting ants (Attini) and find(More)
Self-organization is a concept and phenomenon whereby system-level patterns spontaneously arise solely from interactions among subunits of the system. Focusing on self-organization at the organismal level, I ask the question: are the boundaries to self-organization indistinct? After reviewing a number of published definitions of self-organization, I explore(More)
UNLABELLED Out of the plethora of chemical species extractable at low levels from the materials of construction of single-use bioprocess containers, we have identified one particularly conspicuous compound and shown it to be highly detrimental to cell growth. The compound, bis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate (bDtBPP), is derived from the breakdown of(More)
F ish schools are incredible things. They snake through the water like a single entity, turning in unison, waves of activity flashing across the shoal. However, their group-level behavior is not encoded within each individual, nor is there a leader or small group of individuals directing the movement of the school. It is instead a process whereby individual(More)