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OBJECTIVE Guided by a social influence and empowerment framework, peer leaders in the injecting drug user (IDU) community were trained to promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention among their contacts within and beyond their sex and drug networks. METHODS From 1994 to 1995 in Baltimore, Maryland, 36 peer leaders who participated in the(More)
A network-oriented HIV prevention intervention based on social identity theory and peer outreach was implemented for HIV positive and negative drug users. A community sample of 250 were randomly assigned to an equal-attention control condition or a multisession, small-group experimental condition, which encouraged peer outreach; 94% of participants were(More)
Neighborhood factors have been linked to HIV risk behaviors, HIV counseling and testing, and HIV medical care. However, the social-psychological mechanisms that connect neighborhood factors to HIV-related behaviors have not been fully determined. In this article we review the research on neighborhood factors and HIV-related behaviors, approaches to(More)
Quantitative and qualitative research suggests that urban disadvantaged environments may be highly stressful to their inhabitants. Social disorganization may be deleterious to both physical and mental health. The relationships among perceptions of one's neighborhood, measures of social support and social integration, and level of subsequent depressive(More)
BACKGROUND On a macrosocial level, neighborhood characteristics have been found to be associated with the prevalence of HIV and other bloodborne and sexually transmitted infections. The current study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between neighborhood social and physical disorder and high-risk sexual partners. METHODS A(More)
Altering norms may be an important approach to introducing and sustaining health protective behavior change. This study sought to examine the relationship between condom use, condom norms, and social network characteristics among a sample of economically impoverished individuals at risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV. Participants were 1051 individuals(More)
To be effective and sustainable, HIV-prevention interventions need to be sufficiently powerful to counteract prevailing social norms and diffuse through the targeted community to provide social reinforcement for behaviour change. Social structural and environmental factors are major influences on HIV-related behaviours yet the dearth of conceptualization(More)
BACKGROUND There is a lack of effective behavioral interventions for HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs). We sought to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to reduce sexual and injection transmission risk behaviors and to increase utilization of medical care and adherence to HIV medications among this population. METHODS HIV-positive IDUs (n=966)(More)
OBJECTIVES There are no studies that examine street-based female sex workers' vulnerability to HIV from both clients and intimate partners. This study documents street-based female sex workers' experiences of client and intimate partners, examines the intersections of violence, alcohol use in condom use, and highlights survival strategies used to avert(More)
Risk compensation associated with male circumcision has been a concern for male circumcision scale-up programs. Using posttrial data collected during 2007-2011 on 2,137 male circumcision trial participants who were uncircumcised at trial closure in Rakai, Uganda, the authors evaluated their sexual behavioral changes during approximately 3 years' follow-up(More)