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A network-oriented HIV prevention intervention based on social identity theory and peer outreach was implemented for HIV positive and negative drug users. A community sample of 250 were randomly assigned to an equal-attention control condition or a multisession, small-group experimental condition, which encouraged peer outreach; 94% of participants were(More)
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is often viewed as a superior method for recruiting hard-to-reach populations disproportionately burdened with poor health outcomes. As an analytic approach, it has been praised for its ability to generate unbiased population estimates via post-stratified weights which account for non-random recruitment. However, population(More)
HIV can spread rapidly between people who inject drugs (through injections and sexual transmission), and potentially the virus can pass to the wider community (by sexual transmission). Here, we summarise evidence on the effectiveness of individual-level approaches to prevention of HIV infection; review global and regional coverage of opioid substitution(More)
Health outcomes are associated with aggregate neighborhood measures and individual neighborhood perceptions. This paper sought to delineate individual, social network, and spatial factors that may influence perceptions of neighborhood disorder. Multilevel regression analysis showed that neighborhood perceptions were more negative in neighborhoods with(More)
Information is sparse on the social context of illicit drug injection behaviors and their relationship to HIV infection. This study examined relationships between injection settings, injecting with others, and HIV risk behaviors of sharing needles and not cleaning contaminated needles in a sample of 630 inner-city injecting drug users in Baltimore, MD.(More)
Few studies have examined the current social relationships of injecting drug users. This paper examines the structural and relationship characteristics of the social networks of injecting drug users, and the relation of social network characteristics to the HIV infection risk behavior of frequency of injecting heroin and cocaine. The study sample was(More)
Neighborhood environments are increasingly recognized as a contextual determinant of health, behaviors, and disease; however, the pathways through which neighborhood characteristics impact health behaviors are poorly understood. This article examines pathways to elucidate how neighborhood social disorder may lead to HIV transmission. Data are from a(More)
The present study examined social control processes in drug cessation among adults. Social control theory posits that the association between drug use and the drug use of a person's social network results from an individual seeking out similar peers. The data included 629 individuals who reported past-year heroin or cocaine use at baseline and had follow-up(More)
Respondent driven sampling (RDS) was originally developed to sample and provide peer education to injection drug users at risk for HIV. Based on the premise that drug users' social networks were maintained through sharing rituals, this peer-driven approach to disseminate educational information and reduce risk behaviors capitalizes and expands upon the(More)
There is no question that the stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and AIDS can be reduced through intervention. The inclusion of stigma and discrimination reduction as a critical component of achieving an AIDS-free generation in recent UNAIDS, UN and PEPFAR political initiatives is promising. Yet national governments need evidence on effective(More)