Carl A. Latkin

Learn More
HIV can spread rapidly between people who inject drugs (through injections and sexual transmission), and potentially the virus can pass to the wider community (by sexual transmission). Here, we summarise evidence on the effectiveness of individual-level approaches to prevention of HIV infection; review global and regional coverage of opioid substitution(More)
Quantitative and qualitative research suggests that urban disadvantaged environments may be highly stressful to their inhabitants. Social disorganization may be deleterious to both physical and mental health. The relationships among perceptions of one's neighborhood, measures of social support and social integration, and level of subsequent depressive(More)
OBJECTIVE Guided by a social influence and empowerment framework, peer leaders in the injecting drug user (IDU) community were trained to promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention among their contacts within and beyond their sex and drug networks. METHODS From 1994 to 1995 in Baltimore, Maryland, 36 peer leaders who participated in the(More)
OBJECTIVES There are no studies that examine street-based female sex workers' vulnerability to HIV from both clients and intimate partners. This study documents street-based female sex workers' experiences of client and intimate partners, examines the intersections of violence, alcohol use in condom use, and highlights survival strategies used to avert(More)
A network-oriented HIV prevention intervention based on social identity theory and peer outreach was implemented for HIV positive and negative drug users. A community sample of 250 were randomly assigned to an equal-attention control condition or a multisession, small-group experimental condition, which encouraged peer outreach; 94% of participants were(More)
Few studies have examined the current social relationships of injecting drug users. This paper examines the structural and relationship characteristics of the social networks of injecting drug users, and the relation of social network characteristics to the HIV infection risk behavior of frequency of injecting heroin and cocaine. The study sample was(More)
BACKGROUND On a macrosocial level, neighborhood characteristics have been found to be associated with the prevalence of HIV and other bloodborne and sexually transmitted infections. The current study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between neighborhood social and physical disorder and high-risk sexual partners. METHODS A(More)
Injection drug use (IDU) and HIV infection are important public health problems in Vietnam. The IDU population increased 70% from 2000 to 2004 and is disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS -- the country's second leading cause of death. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share transmission routes with HIV and cause serious medical(More)
Neighborhood factors have been linked to HIV risk behaviors, HIV counseling and testing, and HIV medical care. However, the social-psychological mechanisms that connect neighborhood factors to HIV-related behaviors have not been fully determined. In this article we review the research on neighborhood factors and HIV-related behaviors, approaches to(More)
AIMS To assess the effectiveness of a peer-based, personal risk network-focused HIV prevention intervention to (i) train injection drug users (IDUs) to reduce injection and sex risk behaviors, (ii) conduct outreach to behaviorally risky individuals in their personal social networks [called risk network members (RNM)], and (iii) reduce RNM HIV risk(More)