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National health systems need strengthening if they are to meet the growing challenge of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. By application of an accepted health-systems framework to the evidence, we report that the factors that limit countries' capacity to implement proven strategies for chronic diseases relate to the way in which(More)
HYPOTHESIS Surgical and anesthetic care is increasingly recognized as a neglected but cost-effective component of primary health care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Strengthening delivery can help achieve Millennium Development Goals 4, 5, and 6. Large gaps in access to essential surgical care in LMICs result in considerable morbidity and(More)
Donor commitments to health have increased more than fourfold since the Millennium Declaration was signed in September 2000, reaching more than US$ 20 billion in 2008. 1 Despite this, progress towards some of the health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has been disappointing in many settings. 2 The simple act of raising more international funds cannot,(More)
Since 2000, the emergence of several large disease-specific global health initiatives (GHIs) has changed the way in which international donors provide assistance for public health. Some critics have claimed that these initiatives burden health systems that are already fragile in countries with few resources, whereas others have asserted that weak health(More)
Increasing focus on health inequities has brought renewed attention to two related policy discourses - primary health care and the social determinants of health. Both prioritise health equity and also promote a broad view of health, multisectoral action and the participation of empowered communities. Differences arise in the lens each applies to the health(More)
are numerous data sources that offer information on the health of a community. Traditional sources, such as hospitals and clinics, provide relatively reliable inputs to existing health-monitoring systems, but often give a delayed or incomplete picture. Additional data sources, such as school and work attendance, veterinary clinics, social media,(More)