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Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA is rapidly upregulated in the central nervous system (CNS) following infection with neurotropic coronavirus and remains elevated during persistent infection. Infection of transgenic IL-10/green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mice revealed that CNS-infiltrating T cells were the major source of IL-10, with minimal IL-10(More)
In vitro studies have implicated chemokine receptors in consumption and clearance of specific ligands. We studied the role that various signaling chemokine receptors play during ligand homeostasis in vivo. We examined the levels of ligands in serum and CNS tissue in mice lacking chemokine receptors. Compared with receptor-sufficient controls, Cx3cr1(-/-)(More)
Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) necessitate rapid, yet tightly controlled responses to contain viral spread while limiting tissue damage. All CNS resident cell types are equipped with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to respond to viruses. The resulting activation of IFN-alpha/beta, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines is(More)
Actions of chemokines and the interaction with specific receptors go beyond their original, defined role of recruiting leukocytes to inflamed tissues. Chemokine receptor expression in peripheral elements and resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS) represents a relevant communication system during neuroinflammatory conditions. The following(More)
Therapeutic modalities effective in patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are limited. In a murine model of progressive MS, the sustained disability during the chronic phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) correlated with elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-6, a cytokine with pleiotropic functions and therapeutic(More)
Demyelination and axonal degeneration are determinants of progressive neurological disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cells resident within the central nervous system (CNS) are active participants in development, progression and subsequent control of autoimmune disease; however, their individual contributions are not well understood.(More)
Leukocyte access into the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma is tightly regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Leukocyte migration through the endothelial cell wall into the perivascular space is well characterized; however, mechanisms regulating their penetration through the glia limitans into the parenchyma are less well studied, and the role of(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has pleiotropic functions during both the demyelinating autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and its murine model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). How TNF regulates disability during progressive disease remains unresolved. Using a progressive EAE model characterized by sustained TNF and increasing morbidity,(More)
The antiviral role of CD4(+) T cells in virus-induced pathologies of the central nervous system (CNS) has not been explored extensively. Control of neurotropic mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) requires the collaboration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, with CD8(+) T cells providing direct perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-mediated antiviral activity. To(More)
The influence of CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) on acute and chronic viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS) was examined using a glial tropic murine coronavirus. Treg in the CNS were highest during initial T cell mediated virus control, decreased and then remained relatively stable during persistence. Anti-CD25 treatment did not affect(More)