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CONTEXT Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic and debilitating anxiety disorder. Several brain areas related to pain processing are implicated in PTSD. To our knowledge, no functional imaging study has discussed whether patients with PTSD experience and process pain in a different way than control subjects. OBJECTIVE To examine neural(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptors are thought to play an important role in modulating the central nervous system in response to stress. Animal data have shown alterations in the GABA(A) receptor complex by uncontrollable stressors. SPECT imaging with benzodiazepine ligands showed lower distribution volumes of the benzodiazepine-GABA(A) receptor in(More)
Impaired attention and memory are symptoms frequently associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although patients with PTSD frequently report memory difficulties and empirical research provides support for a memory deficit in PTSD, as of yet, no fMRI study has adequately investigated the neural correlates of learning and memory of neutral (i.e.(More)
Structural neuroimaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have focused primarily on structural alterations in the medial temporal lobe, and only a few have examined grey matter reductions in the cortex. Recent advances in computational analysis provide new opportunities to use semi-automatic techniques to determine cortical thickness, but(More)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is typically accompanied by acute and chronic alterations in the stress response. These alterations have mostly been described in individuals under baseline conditions, but several studies have also used a challenge model to further assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the stress response.(More)
Impaired attention and memory are symptoms frequently associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies have identified fronto-temporal alterations during encoding in patients with PTSD. We examine the role of the precuneus (located in the posteromedial parietal lobe) that is known to play a role in memory, but has largely been(More)
BACKGROUND While enhanced cortisol suppression in response to dexamethasone is one of the most consistent biological findings in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the relative contribution of trauma exposure to this finding remains unclear. METHODS Assessment of diurnal salivary cortisol levels and 1600 h salivary cortisol before and after oral(More)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). In addition, there is evidence for altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and function in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The aim of the present study was to differentiate between the effect of trauma exposure and PTSD(More)
BACKGROUND Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Arginine vasopressin (AVP), in conjunction with corticotrophin releasing hormone, has shown to be an important modulator of the HPA axis. In order to evaluate the effect of trauma and PTSD on central AVP secretion we assessed(More)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with alterations in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion. Plasma CRH levels, which are easily acquired, might serve as a predictor of hypothalamic CRH levels. Assessment of plasma CRH, adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH), and cortisol levels in 31 veterans with PTSD, 30 traumatized veterans(More)