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BACKGROUND Young injection drug users (IDUs) may be at increased risk of premature mortality due to the health risks associated with injection drug use including overdoses and infections. However, there has been little research conducted on mortality causes, rates and associations among this population. We undertook this study to investigate patterns of(More)
AIMS To identify factors associated with receptive syringe sharing among injection drug users (IDUs) and elucidate the association between syringe possession arrests and syringe sharing. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Mexican border cities of Tijuana, Baja California and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. PARTICIPANTS IDUs in Tijuana (n = 222) and(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection among young (aged 29 years or younger) injection drug users (IDUs) and to compare sociodemographic and risk characteristics between (HIV/HCV) coinfected, monoinfected, or HIV- and HCV-negative youth. Data were collected through the(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research has identified the impact of law enforcement practices on the behaviours and health of injection drug users (IDUs). We undertook a qualitative study of IDUs' experiences of policing practices in two Mexican cities on the U.S. border. METHODS In 2004, two teams of Mexican interviewers conducted in-depth interviews with IDUs(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic, drug-related, and sexual risk variables between young (13-24 years of age) and older (> or =25 years of age) injection drug users (IDUs); and to determine HIV prevalence and associated risk factors for HIV infection among young IDUs. METHODS Data were collected through the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study(More)
Reasons for incident cases of vertical HIV transmission in the era of free access to PMTCT in South Africa were investigated. This mixed-methods study was conducted in Soweto, South Africa from June–August, 2009. Birthmothers of HIV-infected infants born after 1 December 2008 were eligible. All participants completed an interviewer-administered(More)
OBJECTIVES Recent reports have suggested that Aboriginal and American Indian people are at elevated risk of HIV infection. We undertook the present study to compare socio-demographic and risk variables between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal young (aged 13 - 24 years) injection drug users (IDUs) and characterize the burden of HIV infection among young(More)
PURPOSE Because of growing concerns regarding the heightened vulnerabilities and risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection among youth who exchange sex for survival, we investigated individual risk patterns and structural barriers among young (≤24 years) female sex workers (FSWs) in Vancouver, Canada. METHODS Between 2005 and 2008, a total of 255(More)
The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic, drug, and sexual risk characteristics between hepatitis C virus (HCV) baseline positive and negative young (13-24 years) injection drug users (IDUs) and to determine prospective risk factors for HCV seroconversion among the youth. Data were collected through the Vancouver Injection Drug Users(More)
It was recently found that 94% of the nearly $500 million allocated annually to Canada's illicit drug strategy has been spent on enforcement-based interventions. As a result, lack of funds for addiction treatment has meant demand for substance abuse treatment among illicit drug users has exceeded availability. This study evaluated whether injection drug(More)