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BACKGROUND Young injection drug users (IDUs) may be at increased risk of premature mortality due to the health risks associated with injection drug use including overdoses and infections. However, there has been little research conducted on mortality causes, rates and associations among this population. We undertook this study to investigate patterns of(More)
Food insecurity has been linked to high-risk sexual behavior in sub-Saharan Africa, but there are limited data on these links among people living with HIV/AIDS, and on the mechanisms for how food insecurity predisposes individuals to risky sexual practices. We undertook a series of in-depth open-ended interviews with 41 individuals living with HIV/AIDS to(More)
Astrocytes purified from the neonatal rat brain were cultured for up to 3 weeks prior to being treated with agents that can induce reactive changes in astrocytes. These agents included dibutyryl cAMP, interleukin-1 beta, and macrophage conditioned media. After treating astrocytes for 3 days, the agents were removed and the ability of the astrocytes to(More)
OBJECTIVES Recent reports have suggested that Aboriginal and American Indian people are at elevated risk of HIV infection. We undertook the present study to compare socio-demographic and risk variables between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal young (aged 13 - 24 years) injection drug users (IDUs) and characterize the burden of HIV infection among young(More)
BACKGROUND Although injection drug use is known to result in a range of health-related harms, including transmission of HIV and fatal overdose, little is known about the possible role of synthetic drugs in injection initiation. We sought to determine the effect of crystal methamphetamine use on risk of injection initiation among street-involved youth in a(More)
A new method to correct for attenuation and the buildup of scatter in planar imaging quantification is presented. The method is based on the combined use of 3D density information provided by computed tomography to correct for attenuation and the application of Monte Carlo simulated buildup factors to correct for buildup in the projection pixels. CT and(More)
INTRODUCTION The association between childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) is well established. However, no studies have examined the potential impact of other forms of childhood maltreatment on HIV incidence in this population. METHODS We explored the impact of child physical abuse (CPA) on HIV seroconversion in a(More)
A1 We are pleased to present peer reviewed forum proceedings of the 2 nd synchronicity forum of GHRI/CHVIfunded Canadian and African HIV prevention and vaccine teams Forum objectives GHRI-funded capacity building and HIV prevention research teams presented highlights of achievements Teams discussed how to jointly build on achievements for sustainability(More)
BACKGROUND Internet access via mobile phones and computers facilitates interaction and potential health communication among individuals through social networking. Many South African adolescents own mobile phones and can access social networks via apps. OBJECTIVE We investigated sociodemographic factors and HIV risk behaviors of adolescent social(More)
BACKGROUND Community-based research has gained increasing recognition in health research over the last two decades. Such participatory research approaches are lauded for their ability to anchor research in lived experiences, ensuring cultural appropriateness, accessing local knowledge, reaching marginalized communities, building capacity, and facilitating(More)