Carey L Shive

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BACKGROUND While inflammation predicts mortality in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the prognostic significance of gut barrier dysfunction and phenotypic T-cell markers remains unclear. METHODS We assessed immunologic predictors of mortality in a case-control study within the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS(More)
Pertussis toxin (PT) has been widely used to facilitate the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rodents. It has been suggested that this microbial product promotes EAE by opening up the blood-brain barrier and thereby facilitates the migration of pathogenic T cells to the CNS. However, PT has other biological effects that could(More)
BACKGROUND Failure to normalize CD4(+) T-cell numbers despite effective antiretroviral therapy is an important problem in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS To evaluate potential determinants of immune failure in this setting, we performed a comprehensive immunophenotypic characterization of patients with immune failure despite HIV(More)
The mechanisms responsible for increased cardiovascular risk associated with HIV-1 infection are incompletely defined. Using flow cytometry, in the present study, we examined activation phenotypes of monocyte subpopulations in patients with HIV-1 infection or acute coronary syndrome to find common cellular profiles. Nonclassic (CD14(+)CD16(++)) and(More)
T cell activation engages multiple intracellular signaling cascades, including the ERK1/2 (p44/p42) pathway. It has been suggested that ERKs integrate TCR signal strength, and are important for thymocyte development and positive selection. However, the requirement of ERKs for the effector functions of peripheral mature T cells and, specifically, for T(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in the United States and worldwide. Using a murine model of keratitis in which abraded corneas are infected with P. aeruginosa parent and ΔfliC (aflagellar) strains 19660 and PAO1, we found that F4/80(+) macrophages were the predominant cell type in the cornea expressing TLR2, TLR4,(More)
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is an Ag present in the myelin sheath of the CNS thought to be targeted by the autoimmune T cell response in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we have for the first time characterized the T cell epitopes of human MOG restricted by HLA-DR4 (DRB1*0401), an MHC class II allele associated with MS in a(More)
For immune diagnostic purposes it would be critical to be able to distinguish between ongoing immune processes, such as active infections, and long-term immune memory, for example imprinted by infections that have been cleared a long time ago or by vaccinations. We tested the hypothesis that the secretion of granzyme B, as detected in ex vivo ELISPOT(More)
Soluble CD14 is associated with morbidity and mortality in HIV disease. It is a co-receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that is released from monocytes upon activation. We demonstrate here, that inflammatory cytokines can induce the release of sCD14 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from healthy donors, and that TLR ligands other than LPS can(More)
Immunization with vaccinia virus causes long-term immunity. Efforts have been made to characterize the T cells responsible for this protection. Recently, T cell subsets were described that not only co-express multiple cytokines, but also show increased per cell cytokine productivity. These highly productive cells are often considered to be the most(More)