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We present a method of labeling and immobilizing a low-molecular-weight protein, calmodulin (CaM), by fusion to a larger protein, maltose binding protein (MBP), for single-molecule fluorescence experiments. Immobilization in an agarose gel matrix eliminates potential interactions of the protein and the fluorophore(s) with a glass surface and allows(More)
Single-molecule fluorescence measurements can provide a new perspective on the conformations, dynamics, and interactions of proteins. Recent examples are described illustrating the application of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy to calcium signaling proteins with an emphasis on the new information available in single-molecule fluorescence burst(More)
We used single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer (spFRET) measurements to characterize denatured and partially denatured states of the multidomain calcium signaling protein calmodulin (CaM) in both its apo and Ca(2+)-bound forms. The results demonstrate the existence of an unfolding intermediate. A CaM mutant (CaM-T34C-T110C) was doubly labeled(More)
Two-photon scanning fluorescence microscopy has become a powerful tool for imaging living cells and tissues. Most applications of two-photon microscopy employ a Ti:sapphire laser excitation source, which is not readily portable or rapidly tunable. This work explores the use of two-photon fiber laser excitation (TP-FLEX) as an excitation source for scanning(More)
The Ca2+ signaling protein calmodulin (CaM) stimulates Ca2+ pumping in the plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) by binding to an autoinhibitory domain, which then dissociates from the catalytic domain of PMCA to allow full activation of the enzyme. We measured single-molecule fluorescence trajectories with polarization modulation to track the conformation of(More)
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a robust method for the detection of intramolecular dynamics in proteins but is also susceptible to interference from other dynamic processes such as triplet kinetics and photobleaching. We describe an approach for the detection of intramolecular dynamics in proteins labeled with a FRET dye pair based on global(More)
A voltage-controlled birefringent cell based on ceramic PMN-PT material is used to enable fast intensity modulation of femtosecond laser pulses in the 800 nm wavelength window. The birefringent cell based on a PMN-PT compound has comparatively high electro-optic response, allowing for a short interaction length of 3 mm and thus very small size, low(More)
A rapid, homogeneous aptamer-based bioanalysis is reported for the sensitive detection of immunoglobulin E (IgE) using fluorescence polarization (FP). 5'-End-labeled D17.4 DNA aptamer was used for IgE detection based on the anisotropy differences of the labeled ligand. Two different fluorophores, fluorescein and Texas Red, were used to analyze IgE in the(More)
We have detected single-molecule binding interactions of a target peptide with the calcium-signaling protein calmodulin (CaM) immobilized in an agarose gel, and we have demonstrated the application of a single-molecule binding assay to measure the binding strength of CaM with the CaM-binding domain of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). The(More)