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BACKGROUND In the United States, birth defects affect approximately 3% of all births, are a leading cause of infant mortality, and contribute substantially to childhood morbidity. METHODS Population-based data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network were combined to estimate the prevalence of 21 selected defects for 1999-2001, stratified by(More)
BACKGROUND The National Birth Defects Prevention Network collects state-specific birth defects surveillance data for annual publication of prevalence estimates and collaborative research projects. In 2006, data for 21 birth defects from 1999 through 2001 were presented as national birth prevalence estimates. The purpose of this report was to update these(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of NTDs in the US declined significantly after mandatory folic acid fortification; however, it is not known if the prevalence of NTDs has continued to decrease in recent years relative to the period immediately following the fortification mandate. METHODS Population-based data from 21 birth defects surveillance systems were used(More)
BACKGROUND In 1992, the United States Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age consume 400 microg of folic acid daily. The Food and Drug Administration authorized the addition of synthetic folic acid to grain products in March 1996 with mandatory compliance by January 1998. The impact of these public health policies on the(More)
BACKGROUND Observational studies and clinical trials have suggested that periconceptional use of folic acid can reduce the risk of birth defects other than neural tube defects (NTDs). Using data reported by states to the National Birth Defects Prevention Network, we examined whether folic acid fortification might have decreased the prevalence of other(More)
BACKGROUND Although clubfoot is a common birth defect, with a prevalence of approximately 1 per 1000 livebirths, the etiology of clubfoot remains largely unknown. Studies of the prevalence and risk factors for clubfoot in the United States have previously been limited to specific states. The purpose of this study was to pool data from several birth defects(More)
The annual National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) Congenital Malformations Surveillance Report includes state-level data on major birth defects (i.e., conditions present at birth that cause adverse structural changes in one or more parts of the body) and a directory of population-based birth defects surveillance systems in the United States.(More)
In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). NTDs are major birth defects of the brain and spine that occur early in pregnancy as a result of improper closure of the embryonic neural tube, which can lead to death or varying degrees of(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine racial/ethnic-specific survival of children with major birth defects in the US. STUDY DESIGN We pooled data on live births delivered during 1999-2007 with any of 21 birth defects from 12 population-based birth defects surveillance programs. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to calculate cumulative survival probabilities and Cox(More)