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Recently, we reported the discovery of three novel coronaviruses, bulbul coronavirus HKU11, thrush coronavirus HKU12, and munia coronavirus HKU13, which were identified as representatives of a novel genus, Deltacoronavirus, in the subfamily Coronavirinae. In this territory-wide molecular epidemiology study involving 3,137 mammals and 3,298 birds, we(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnant women infected by the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus had more severe disease and higher mortality but its pathogenesis is still unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We showed that higher mortality, more severe pneumonitis, higher pulmonary viral load, lower peripheral blood T lymphocytes and antibody responses, higher levels of(More)
BACKGROUND Experience from influenza pandemics suggested that convalescent plasma treatment given within 4 to 5 days of symptom onset might be beneficial. However, robust treatment data are lacking. METHODS This is a multicenter, prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Convalescent plasma from patients who recovered from the 2009 pandemic(More)
The genus Mamastrovirus belongs to the family Astroviridae and consists of at least six members infecting different mammalian hosts, including humans, cattle and pigs. In recent years, novel astroviruses have been identified in other mammalian species like roe deer, bats and sea lions. While the bovine astrovirus was one of the earliest astroviruses to have(More)
BACKGROUND. Given the apparent high mortality associated with the novel swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus (S-OIV) in Mexico, we aimed to study the cytokine profiles induced by S-OIV and the effect of immunomodulators. METHODS. We assayed cytokines and their messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in culture supernatants of human macrophages infected with H5N1, S-OIV(More)
BACKGROUND Infections caused by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus range from mild upper respiratory tract syndromes to fatal diseases. However, studies comparing virological and immunological profile of different clinical severity are lacking. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 74 patients with pandemic H1N1 infection, including 23(More)
BACKGROUND Experience from treating patients with Spanish influenza and influenza A(H5N1) suggested that convalescent plasma therapy might be beneficial. However, its efficacy in patients with severe pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1 2009) infection remained unknown. METHODS During the period from 1 September 2009 through 30 June 2010, we(More)
The high mortality associated with the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has raised questions about the possible role of a cytokine storm in its pathogenesis. Although recent studies showed that MERS-CoV infection is associated with an attenuated IFN response, no induction of inflammatory cytokines was demonstrated during the(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with a high circulating leptin level and severe 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09) infection. The mechanism for severe lung injury in obese patients and the specific treatment strategy remain elusive. METHOD We studied the pathogenesis of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in a mouse model of diet-induced(More)
The recently discovered Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to infect humans, with high mortality. Specific, highly effective therapeutics and vaccines against the MERS-CoV are urgently needed to save human lives and address the pandemic concerns. We identified three human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), m336, m337, and m338,(More)