Candida Medina

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BACKGROUND Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) may lead to accelerated hepatic disease progression with higher rates of liver cirrhosis and liver-related mortality compared with HBV mono-infection. Co or super-infection with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) may worsen the liver disease and complicate treatment(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe loss to follow-up (LTFU) at all stages of the HIV programme. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study. SETTING The HIV clinic at Hospital National Simão Mendes in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS A total of 4080 HIV-infected patients. OUTCOME MEASURES Baseline characteristics, percentages and incidence rates of LTFU as well as(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis, management and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-2 or HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. Because of these issues, we designed a West African collaborative cohort for HIV-2 infection within the framework of the International epidemiological Databases to(More)
As HIV-2 is intrinsically resistant to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, it is mandatory to discriminate between HIV types before initiating antiretroviral treatment. Guinea-Bissau has the world's highest prevalence of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. We evaluated 3 rapid tests for discrimination between HIV-1, HIV-2, and(More)
BACKGROUND Decisions about when to start an antiretroviral therapy (ART) are normally based on CD4 cell counts and viral load (VL). However, these measurements require equipment beyond the capacity of most laboratories in low-income and middle-income settings. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify and test simple markers to guide the optimal time for(More)
The West African country Guinea-Bissau is home to the world's highest prevalence of HIV-2, and its HIV-1 prevalence is rising. Other chronic viral infections like human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis B virus are common as well. The Bissau HIV Cohort was started in 2007 to gain new insights into the overall effect of introducing(More)
PROBLEM The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa has improved the quality of life of millions of people and reduced mortality. However, substantial problems with the infrastructure for ART delivery remain. APPROACH Clinicians and researchers at an HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau identified problems with the(More)
BACKGROUND Poor treatment adherence is a main barrier for effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. HIV-related knowledge may affect understanding and utilization of HIV medical information, hence limited health literacy is a known barrier to treatment adherence. DESIGN AND METHODS A cross-sectional study included 494 HIV-infected individuals from(More)
drug resistance. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37: 1112–1118. 7. Mills EJ, Nachega JB, Buchan I, et al. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa and North America: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2006;296:679–690. 8. Ortego C, Huedo-Medina TB, Llorca J, et al. Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a meta-analysis. AIDS Behav.(More)