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Regulated intramembrane proteolysis by gamma-secretase cleaves proteins in their transmembrane domain and is involved in important signaling pathways. At least four different gamma-secretase complexes have been identified, but little is known about their biological role and specificity. Previous work has demonstrated the involvement of the(More)
The mechanisms leading to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons (DNs) in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are not completely understood. Here, we show, in the postmortem human tissue, that these neurons aberrantly express mitosis-associated proteins, including the E2F-1 transcription factor, and appear to duplicate their nuclear(More)
Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) is genetically linked to schizophrenia, a disease caused by neurodevelopmental imbalance in dopaminergic function. The Nrg1 receptor ErbB4 is abundantly expressed on midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Nrg1 has been shown to penetrate blood-brain barrier, and peripherally administered Nrg1 activates ErbB4 and leads to a persistent(More)
1. We investigate here for the first time in primate brain the combinatorial expression of the three major functionally relevant proteins for catecholaminergic neurotransmission tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic acid acid decarboxylase (AADC), and the brain-specific isoform of the vesicular monoamine transporter, VMAT2, using highly specific antibodies(More)
In mammalians, toll-like receptors (TLR) signal-transduction pathways induce the expression of a variety of immune-response genes, including inflammatory cytokines. It is therefore plausible to assume that TLRs are mediators in glial cells triggering the release of cytokines that ultimately kill DA neurons in the substantia nigra in Parkinson disease (PD).(More)
Naturally occurring antibodies directed against beta-amyloid (Abeta) were detected in intravenous immunoglobulin preparations. After intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in patients with different neurological diseases, total Abeta and Abeta(1-42) in the cerebrospinal fluid was reduced significantly compared with baseline values. In the serum, total Abeta(More)
Active as well as passive immunization against beta-amlyoid (Abeta) has been proposed as a treatment to lower cerebral amyloid burden and stabilize cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To clarify the mechanism of action underlying passive immunization, the in vivo distribution (and sites of degradation) of peripherally administered radiolabeled(More)
Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra (SN). Recent evidence suggests that innate and adaptive immune responses can influence dopaminergic cell death in animal models of PD. However, the precise role of mononuclear phagocytes, key players in damaged tissue clearance and cross-talk with cells of(More)
Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been established as a powerful technique for the determination of metal and nonmetal distributions within biological systems with high sensitivity. An imaging LA-ICP-MS technique for Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn was developed to produce large series of quantitative element maps in native(More)
OBJECTIVE Active or passive immunisation can mitigate plaque pathology in murine models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, it has been shown that antibodies against beta-amyloid (Abeta) are present in human immunoglobulin preparations (IVIgG), which specifically recognise and inhibit the neurotoxic effects of Abeta. This study reports the results from a(More)