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To investigate synaptic mechanisms underlying information processing in auditory cortex, we examined cholinergic modulation of synaptic transmission in a novel slice preparation containing thalamocortical and intracortical inputs to mouse auditory cortex. Extracellular and intracellular recordings were made in cortical layer IV while alternately stimulating(More)
Cholinergic markers in the middle layers of rat auditory cortex are transiently upregulated during the second postnatal week, at which time alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) selectively regulate NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated EPSPs. To investigate the developmental role of this regulation, we determined whether manipulating nAChR function(More)
Axonal selection of ipsilateral and/or contralateral targets is essential for integrating bilateral sensory information and for coordinated movement. The molecular processes that determine ipsilateral and contralateral target choice are not fully understood. We examined this target selection in the developing auditory brainstem. Ventral cochlear nucleus(More)
Chronic nicotine exposure (CNE) can alter brain development and is thought to produce deficits in auditory function. Previously, we found that CNE during the second postnatal week, but not before or after, increases the duration of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in rat auditory cortex. It was(More)
Acetylcholine plays an important role in regulating the processing of sensory stimuli, and understanding its specific cellular actions is critical to understanding how sensory cortex develops and functions in different behavioral states. Here we review recent work on the cellular effects of nicotinic receptor activation in auditory cortex and describe how(More)
Specificity in the projections from the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) is essential for sound localization. Globular bushy cells project from the VCN to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) on the contralateral, but not the ipsilateral, side of the brainstem, terminating in large synaptic endings known as calyces of Held. The precision(More)
Deafferentation of neural tissue can result in cell death, morphological changes, and/or alterations in sources of innervation. These changes often occur during a limited period of development. In the auditory brainstem, the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) projects to the contralateral but not ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). This(More)
The purposes of this study were to determine if the tape measuring method is a reliable method of measuring six active neck motions, to estimate measurement errors, and to compare the intratester reliability between an experienced tester and an inexperienced tester by using this method. Each tester measured 17 different normal subjects. Each active neck(More)
Sensory cortex in the rat undergoes rapid postnatal development, especially following the onset of sensory function during so-called "critical periods." To investigate potential mechanisms in the auditory forebrain involving different NMDA receptor subunits, we have used in situ hybridization to determine expression patterns of NR2A and NR2B mRNA at(More)