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Early visual areas are required for conscious visual perception, but recent evidence suggests that parts of the frontal lobe might also play a key role. However, it remains unclear whether frontal brain areas are involved in visual perception or merely use information from visual regions to drive behavior. One such frontal cortical area, the frontal-eye(More)
Even a single night of total sleep deprivation (SD) can have dramatic effects on economic decision making. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that SD influences economic decisions by altering the valuation process. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we identified value signals related to the anticipation and the experience of monetary and social(More)
Visual disappearance illusions, such as motion-induced blindness, are commonly used to study the neural correlates of visual perception. In such illusions a salient visual target becomes perceptually invisible. Previous studies are inconsistent regarding the role of early visual areas in these illusions. Here we provide physiological and psychophysical(More)
Making decisions about rewards that involve delay or effort requires the integration of value and cost information. The brain areas recruited in this integration have been well characterized for delay discounting. However only a few studies have investigated how effort costs are integrated into value signals to eventually determine choice. In contrast to(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To determine whether sleep deprivation would affect the discounting of delayed rewards, of rewards entailing the expense of effort, or both. DESIGN We measured rates of two types of reward discounting under conditions of rested wakefulness (RW) and sleep deprivation (SD). Delay discounting was defined as the willingness to accept smaller(More)
The retinofugal pathways in the California ground squirrel, Spermophilus beecheyi, were mapped after intravitreal injections of cholera toxin B-subunit. The results of the current study are consistent with work in other mammals and provide new details relevant to the organization and evolution of the visual system. All retinorecipient nuclei received(More)
BACKGROUND Dietary disinhibition is a behavioral trait associated with weight gain and obesity. Because food choices are made according to the relative value assigned to each option, examination of valuation signals through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may elucidate the neural basis for the association between dietary disinhibition and(More)
Neuroprosthetic devices that interface with the nervous system to restore functional motor activity offer a viable alternative to nerve regeneration, especially in proximal nerve injuries like brachial plexus injuries where muscle atrophy may set in before nerve re-innervation occurs. Prior studies have used control signals from muscle or cortical activity.(More)
Individuals with tetraplegia lack independent mobility, making them highly dependent on others to move from one place to another. Here, we describe how two macaques were able to use a wireless integrated system to control a robotic platform, over which they were sitting, to achieve independent mobility using the neuronal activity in their motor cortices.(More)
Brain-machine interface (BMI) systems have the potential to restore function to people who suffer from paralysis due to a spinal cord injury. However, in order to achieve long-term use, BMI systems have to overcome two challenges - signal degeneration over time, and non-stationarity of signals. Effects of loss in spike signals over time can be mitigated by(More)
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