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We measured manual reaction time in normal human subjects to confirm that an eccentric visual signal has a biphasic effect on covert attention and eye movements. First, it summons attention and biases a saccade toward the signal; a subsequent inhibition of return then slows responses to signals at that location. A temporal hemifield dominance for inhibition(More)
Malignant astrocytic gliomas such as glioblastoma are the most common and lethal intracranial tumors. These cancers exhibit a relentless malignant progression characterized by widespread invasion throughout the brain, resistance to traditional and newer targeted therapeutic approaches, destruction of normal brain tissue, and certain death. The recent(More)
We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors, including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA(More)
The functional competence of extrageniculate visual pathways in hemianopic humans was demonstrated by showing that distractor signals in the blind half of the visual field could inhibit saccades toward targets in the intact visual field. This inhibitory effect of unseen distractors in patients occurred only when distractors were presented in the temporal(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is among the most aggressive of human cancers. A key feature of GBMs is the extensive network of abnormal vasculature characterized by glomeruloid structures and endothelial hyperplasia. Yet the mechanisms of angiogenesis and the origin of tumour endothelial cells remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that a subpopulation of(More)
Here we describe the comprehensive gene expression profiles of each cell type composing normal breast tissue and in situ and invasive breast carcinomas using serial analysis of gene expression. Based on these data, we determined that extensive gene expression changes occur in all cell types during cancer progression and that a significant fraction of(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly lethal brain tumour presenting as one of two subtypes with distinct clinical histories and molecular profiles. The primary GBM subtype presents acutely as a high-grade disease that typically harbours mutations in EGFR, PTEN and INK4A/ARF (also known as CDKN2A), and the secondary GBM subtype evolves from the slow progression of(More)
Although the correspondence between functional-magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) representations of the sensorimotor cortex and intraoperative electrophysiology (including somatosensory evoked potential, SSEP, recordings and direct cortical stimulation) has been reported, a similar correspondence between fMRI and intraoperative localization of the(More)
OBJECT The goal of this study was to investigate discordance between the location of speech arrest during awake cortical mapping, a common intraoperative indicator of hemispheric dominance, and silent speech functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging maps of frontal language function. METHODS Twenty-one cases were reviewed retrospectively. Images of(More)
We have developed a nonheuristic genome topography scan (GTS) algorithm to characterize the patterns of genomic alterations in human glioblastoma (GBM), identifying frequent p18(INK4C) and p16(INK4A) codeletion. Functional reconstitution of p18(INK4C) in GBM cells null for both p16(INK4A) and p18(INK4C) resulted in impaired cell-cycle progression and(More)