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We review here the rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) methodology and its controversial association with depressive relapse. RTD has been used over the past decade to deplete serotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine, or 5-HT) in humans and to probe the role of the central serotonin system in a variety of psychiatric conditions. Its current popularity was stimulated by(More)
Performance of automated methods to isolate brain from nonbrain tissues in magnetic resonance (MR) structural images may be influenced by MR signal inhomogeneities, type of MR image set, regional anatomy, and age and diagnosis of subjects studied. The present study compared the performance of four methods: Brain Extraction Tool (BET; Smith [2002]: Hum Brain(More)
This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to clarify the sites of brain activity associated with the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation (SD). We hypothesized: 1) depressed responders' baseline ventral anterior cingulate (AC) perfusion will be greater than that of nonresponders and controls; 2) following partial sleep deprivation(More)
This article describes a method for partitioning metabolic variability found in positron emission tomography/[18F]fluorodeoxyglucose studies. For the 15 subjects examined, 74.8% of the total metabolic variability could be ascribed to individual differences in global metabolic rate, whereas 15.8% of the total variability was consistent regional variation or(More)
BACKGROUND Having previously reported that 3-month relapse was associated with increased admission REM pressure in nondepressed primary alcoholics, we hypothesized that baseline polysomnography would predict outcome in primary alcoholics with a lifetime diagnosis of secondary depression. METHODS Twenty-one primary alcoholics with secondary depression(More)
AIM To use the superior spatial resolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine differences in cerebral perfusion between young alcohol dependent and normal women. METHODS Eight alcohol dependent women and 8 controls (all ages 18-25) received single-slice resting perfusion-weighted MRI (directly proportional to brain blood flow), with slices(More)
One night of total or partial sleep deprivation (SD) produces temporary remissions in 40-60% of patients with major depression. Two unmedicated patients with major depression and a matched control received quantitative perfusion MR images at baseline and after one night of partial SD (PSD). A reduction > or =30% in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating(More)
Insomnia predicts cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease mortality. This study evaluated EEG sleep, nocturnal sympathetic activity, and daytime measures of immune function in subjects with primary insomnia (n = 17) and patients with current major depression (n = 14) as compared to controls (n = 31). Insomniacs showed disordered sleep continuity along(More)
This study used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the sites of brain activity associated with the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation (SD). We hypothesized: (1) baseline perfusion in right and left amygdalae will be greater in responders than in nonresponders; (2) following partial sleep deprivation (PSD), perfusion in responders' right and left(More)
This paper reviews the functional brain imaging studies in depressed patients treated with sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation is an excellent experimental model of antidepressant treatments which offer new opportunities to understand the basic neural mechanisms. Its antidepressant effects are efficacious and rapid; sleep deprivation is easy to administer,(More)