Calvin Siew

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Considerable evidence suggests that an acidic calcium phosphate, such as octacalcium phosphate (OCP) or brushite, is involved as a precursor in enamel and other hard tissue formation. Additionally, there is in vitro evidence suggesting that fluoride accelerates and magnesium inhibits the hydrolysis of OCP to hydroxyapatite (OHAp). As the amount of OCP or(More)
  • Calvin Siew
  • Compendium of continuing education in dentistry…
  • 2000
Since the introduction of at-home tooth whitening using peroxide-containing agents in 1989, the procedure has been well-received by the public and is becoming one of the most popular cosmetic dental procedures today. To ensure the safety and efficacy of this treatment, the Guidelines for the Acceptance of this category of products by the American Dental(More)
In water distribution systems (WDSs), the available flow at a demand node is dependent on the pressure at that node. When a network is lacking in pressure, not all consumer demands will be met in full. In this context, the assumption that all demands are fully satisfied regardless of the pressure in the system becomes unreasonable and represents the main(More)
This paper describes a penalty-free multi-objective evolutionary optimization approach for the phased whole-life design and rehabilitation of water distribution systems. The optimization model considers the initial construction, rehabilitation and upgrading costs. Repairs and pipe failure costs are included. The model also takes into consideration the(More)
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