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Glycine betaine is believed to be the most active naturally occurring osmoprotectant molecule for Escherichia coli and other bacteria. It is a dipolar ion possessing a quaternary ammonimum group and a carboxylic acid group. To examine the molecular requirements for osmoprotective activity, dimethylthetin was compared with glycine betaine. Dimethylthetin is(More)
Staphylococci are more salt tolerant than are enterococci or Escherichia coli. They have a more rigid cell wall and higher internal turgor pressure. The mechanisms of NaCl-induced osmotic tolerance among these bacteria were examined by determining the generation of osmoprotective activity of cellular extracts and intracellular concentrations of glycine(More)
PURPOSE To describe two outbreaks of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection that occurred in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, during 1998 and 1999, and to characterize the source of the outbreaks and the clinical manifestations of the disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS We performed a retrospective cohort study among Thai laborers with eosinophilic meningitis who ate raw(More)
In order to determine the effect of catheter materials on formation of encrustations in long-term indwelling urinary catheters in the elderly we performed a crossover study utilizing commercially available silicone, silicone-coated, teflon-coated and latex catheters that were left in place for 14 days. The study was conducted with #18 french catheters(More)
OBJECTIVE Indwelling urinary catheters are the most common source of infections in intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nurse-generated daily reminders to physicians to remove unnecessary urinary catheters 5 days after insertion. DESIGN A time-sequence nonrandomized intervention study. SETTING Adult ICUs(More)
This document provides new general guidelines for the design and execution of studies evaluating anti-infective drugs for the prevention or treatment of infectious diseases. The first step in evaluation is the determination of in vitro microbial susceptibility. Next, studies are conducted in animals. Several animal models provide information useful in the(More)
The purchase of antimicrobial agents in drugstores in a district in Manila. The Philippines was examined in order to determine how these agents might be used. Most antimicrobial agents are imported as bulk products and repackaged by a large number of small firms into 1491 different preparations including 206 marketed as combinations with other drugs.(More)