Calvin K. Liang

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In an rural area with a high mortality rate of lung cancer in humans, mice and rats were placed in an environment in which they inhaled coal smoke and wood smoke in indoor air for 15 to 19 months. The incidences of lung cancer in mice in the control group, wood group, and coal group were 17.0% (29/171), 45.8% (81/177), and 89.5% (188/210), respectively: in(More)
The genetic toxicity of fluoride has been investigated extensively by various test systems. However, results obtained have been inconsistent. Fluoride has been reported to be non-genotoxic, genotoxic, and synergistic or antagonistic with certain mutagens. To date, there are no published human studies on the genotoxicity of fluoride. The purpose of this(More)
Ten percent of fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of the thyroid are deemed "indeterminate" or "suspicious" for malignancy by the cytopathologist, but most of these lesions are benign. Therefore, additional markers of malignancy may prove to be a useful adjunct. The catalytic component of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), has been(More)
BACKGROUND Although fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the most sensitive method for the detection of thyroid carcinoma, it cannot provide a definitive diagnosis of malignancy in 60% of the patients operated on for suspicious lesions. Recently, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) has been found to be a diagnostic marker of malignancy. We therefore(More)
Global observations of cloud and humidity distributions in the upper troposphere within all geophysical conditions are critically important in order to monitor the present climate and to provide necessary data for validation of climate models to project future climate change. Towards this end, tropical oceanic distributions of thin cirrus optical depth (τ(More)
The Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument provides the next generation of visible/ infrared imaging including the day/night band (DNB) with nominal bandwidth from 500 to 900 nm. Previous to VIIRS, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (OLS) measured radiances that spanned over seven orders(More)
[1] We utilize a merged AIRS and MLS temperature and water vapor record (August 2004 to March 2010) to study the atmospheric variability of these quantities. The seasonal and spatial distribution of temperature and humidity shows the tropical western Pacific (TWP, 8°S–8°N, 120°E–170°E) to be a location with persistent deep convection and the tropical(More)
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