Calvin Fukuhara

Learn More
Many biochemical, physiological and behavioural processes in organisms ranging from microorganisms to vertebrates exhibit circadian rhythms. In Drosophila, the gene period (per) is required for the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and eclosion behaviour. Oscillation in the levels of per mRNA and Period (dPer) protein in the fly brain is thought to be(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus contains a circadian pacemaker in mammals. We determined the circadian profiles of arginine-vasopressin (AVP), a major peptide in the dorsomedial SCN, in rats under light-dark (LD), constant dark (DD) and constant light (LL) conditions. Under LD conditions, AVP levels in the SCN showed circadian(More)
Entrainment of the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus is accomplished by two neural pathways, the retinohypothalamic and geniculohypothalamic tracts. The geniculohypothalamic tract, which originates from the intergeniculate leaflet and a portion of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, is composed of fibers immunoreactive to neuropeptide(More)
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is subject to daily rhythmic changes. To determine whether this variation is endogenously generated, temporal changes in the SCN AVP mRNA level in constant dark (DD) condition was compared with changes occurring under the light-dark (LD) condition. In both lighting(More)
Administration of a somatostatin (SS) depletor, cysteamine, markedly reduced SS levels in rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). At the same time, cysteamine administration induced a circadian rhythm of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) content in the SCN, which otherwise remains constant under constant environmental conditions. These results suggest that(More)
Adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells which terminate on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the location of circadian clock. To examine whether PACAP exhibits daily variations in the rat SCN, we measured endogenous PACAP contents throughout the day under(More)
The content of substance P (SP)-like immunoreactivity (LI) within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of rats was determined by enzyme immunoassay to evaluate the effect of light on SP-LI in the rat SCN. Male rats were kept under various lighting conditions: light-dark cycles, constant darkness, continuous light exposure for 24 h or light pulse interrupting(More)
Daily profiles of somatostatin mRNA expression were investigated in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) by semiquantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry. Under 12 h light/12 h dark conditions, somatostatin mRNA signals were higher during the day time (Zeitgeber time (ZT) 1) than during the night time (ZT 16). This day-night difference was still(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus has been established as the locus of the circadian pacemaker in mammals. The SCN is histochemically divided into two subdivisions: dorsomedial and ventrolateral subfields. The dorsomedial SCN is characterized, in part, by dense somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SS-LI), but its functional significance(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) was recently demonstrated to stimulate melatonin synthesis in the rat pineal gland. Circadian rhythms of melatonin concentration are well known. However, it has not been clarified whether PACAP contents in the pineal gland show circadian rhythm. In this study, we measured PACAP contents in the rat(More)