We present a double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF) based three-dimensional (3D) microscope with efficient photon collection using a phase mask fabricated by gray-level lithography. The system using the phase mask more than doubles the efficiency of current liquid crystal spatial light modulator implementations. We demonstrate the phase mask DH-PSF… (More)
We investigate holographic optical trapping combined with step-and-repeat maskless projection stereolithography for fine control of 3D position of living cells within a 3D microstructured hydrogel. C2C12 myoblast cells were chosen as a demonstration platform since their development into multinucleated myotubes requires linear arrangements of myoblasts.… (More)
Mathematical study on the guidance of the tibiofemoral joint as theoretical background for total knee replacements. novel total knee replacement by rolling articulating surfaces. In vivo functional measurements and tests.