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OBJECTIVE To provide an update of the 1995 American Academy of Neurology guideline with regard to the following questions: Are there patients who fulfill the clinical criteria of brain death who recover neurologic function? What is an adequate observation period to ensure that cessation of neurologic function is permanent? Are complex motor movements that(More)
BACKGROUND A challenge in the management of severely brain-damaged patients with altered states of consciousness is the differential diagnosis between the vegetative state (VS) and the minimally conscious state (MCS), especially for the gray zone separating these clinical entities. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the differences in brain activation in response to(More)
We studied a patient in a minimally conscious state using PET and cognitive evoked potentials. Cerebral metabolism was below half of normal values. Auditory stimuli with emotional valence (infant cries and the patient's own name) induced a much more widespread activation than did meaningless noise; the activation pattern was comparable with that previously(More)
  • C Machado
  • 1993
A test battery conformed by multimodality evoked potentials (MEP) and electroretinography (ERG) was applied to 30 brain-dead patients. Three patterns of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) were observed: (1) No identifiable waves (73.34%); (2) an isolated bilateral wave I (16.66%) and (3) an isolated unilateral wave I (10%) (Fig. 1,2,3). Waves II,(More)
BAEP records were obtained from 30 brain-dead patients. Three BAEP patterns were observed: (1) no identifiable waves (73.34%), (2) an isolated bilateral wave I (16.66%), and (3) an isolated unilateral wave I (10%). When wave I was present, it was always significantly delayed. Significant augmentation of wave I amplitude was present bilaterally in one case(More)
We studied an 8-year-old boy after a near-drowning left him in a vegetative state (VS) for 4 years before the study. Findings fulfilled all clinical criteria for the diagnosis of VS. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was significant differential activation of the brain in response to hearing his mother's voice compared with the(More)
reports have been published over recent years about the paradoxical " arousing " effect of Zolpidem, a highly selective nonbenzodiazepine gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist acting on the [omega]-1 site of the GABA A receptor, in persistent vegetative state (PVS), in minimally conscious state (MCS) patients, ischemic stroke cases, after brain injury, and(More)
This paper focuses on the application of quantitative electric tomography (qEEGT) to map changes in EEG generators for detection of early signs of ischemia in patients with acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Thirty-two patients were studied with the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery territory, within the first 24 hours(More)
This paper describes the SSEP patterns in BD when using restricted filter bandpass setting, with special emphasis on the dissociation of some SSEP components when cephalic and non-cephalic references are used. A characteristic SSEP pattern was found: absence of N20 and later responses in the Cc'-Fpz lead and preservation of all or some of the so-called(More)