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The establishment of neural circuitry requires vast numbers of synapses to be generated during a specific window of brain development, but it is not known why the developing mammalian brain has a much greater capacity to generate new synapses than the adult brain. Here we report that immature but not mature astrocytes express thrombospondins (TSPs)-1 and -2(More)
Diverse inhibitory pathways shape cortical information processing; however, the relevant interneurons recruited by sensory stimuli and how they impact principal cells are unclear. Here we show that two major interneuron circuits govern dynamic inhibition in space and time within the olfactory cortex. Dendritic-targeting layer 1 interneurons receive strong(More)
Neuronal pentraxins (NPs) define a family of proteins that are homologous to C-reactive and acute-phase proteins in the immune system and have been hypothesized to be involved in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. To investigate the role of NPs in vivo, we generated mice that lack one, two, or all three NPs. NP1/2 knock-out mice exhibited defects in(More)
Cell transplantation offers a potential new treatment for stroke. Animal studies using models that produce ischemic damage in both the striatum and the frontal cortex have shown beneficial effects when hNT cells (postmitotic immature neurons) were transplanted into the ischemic striatum. In this study, we investigated the effect of hNT cells in a model of(More)
Microcircuits composed of dendrite-targeting inhibitory interneurons and pyramidal cells (PCs) are fundamental elements of cortical networks, however, the impact of individual interneurons on pyramidal dendrites is unclear. Here, we combine paired recordings and calcium imaging to determine the spatial domain over which single dendrite-targeting(More)
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) constitutes an interface through which chemical cues can reach and modulate the activity of neurons located at the epithelial boundary within the entire nervous system. Here, we investigate the role and functional connectivity of a class of GABAergic sensory neurons contacting the CSF in the vertebrate spinal cord and referred(More)
Throughout vertebrates, cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs) are ciliated cells surrounding the central canal in the ventral spinal cord. Their contribution to modulate locomotion remains undetermined. Recently, we have shown CSF-cNs modulate locomotion by directly projecting onto the locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs), but the sensory(More)
In the vertebrate spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs) are GABAergic neurons whose functions are only beginning to unfold. Recent evidence indicates that CSF-cNs detect local spinal bending and relay this mechanosensory feedback information to motor circuits, yet many CSF-cN targets remain unknown. Using optogenetics, patterned(More)
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