Caleb C. A. Stokes

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The establishment of neural circuitry requires vast numbers of synapses to be generated during a specific window of brain development, but it is not known why the developing mammalian brain has a much greater capacity to generate new synapses than the adult brain. Here we report that immature but not mature astrocytes express thrombospondins (TSPs)-1 and -2(More)
Diverse inhibitory pathways shape cortical information processing; however, the relevant interneurons recruited by sensory stimuli and how they impact principal cells are unclear. Here we show that two major interneuron circuits govern dynamic inhibition in space and time within the olfactory cortex. Dendritic-targeting layer 1 interneurons receive strong(More)
Neuronal pentraxins (NPs) define a family of proteins that are homologous to C-reactive and acute-phase proteins in the immune system and have been hypothesized to be involved in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. To investigate the role of NPs in vivo, we generated mice that lack one, two, or all three NPs. NP1/2 knock-out mice exhibited defects in(More)
The mucosal immune system fulfils the primary function of defence against potential pathogens that may enter across vulnerable surface epithelia. However, a secondary function of the intestinal immune system is to discriminate between pathogen-associated and 'harmless' antigens, expressing active responses against the former and tolerance to the latter.(More)
213 Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against leucocyte surface antigens from human and 11 animal species were analyzed for reactivities against leucocytes from human and 15 different animal species. We found 77 mAbs (36%) to cross-react. Altogether, 217 cross reactions were registered out of 3195 possible combinations (7%). Most of the cross reacting(More)
Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect the direction of immune responses in later life. There is a need(More)
The mucosal immune system expresses active responses against pathogens and also tolerance against harmless food and commensal bacterial antigens. The mechanisms that determine which of these outcomes occur after recognition of antigens by T-cells are not clear. One possibility is that it is determined by the initial interaction between a dendritic and a(More)
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) constitutes an interface through which chemical cues can reach and modulate the activity of neurons located at the epithelial boundary within the entire nervous system. Here, we investigate the role and functional connectivity of a class of GABAergic sensory neurons contacting the CSF in the vertebrate spinal cord and referred(More)
Laryngeal transplantation is an increasingly viable proposition for patients with irreversible diseases of the larynx. One human transplant has been performed successfully, but many questions remain before routine transplantation can begin. In order to measure the immunological changes in mismatched transplants, it is first necessary to know the immediate(More)
This study found CD4+ T cells present in leucocyte populations isolated from the lamina propria of the pig to be almost exclusively CD45RC-, consistent with their being highly differentiated by exposure to antigen. Following activation in vitro these cells up-regulated expression of IL-2R with similar kinetics to splenic CD4+ cells. However, while splenic(More)