Caitlin Williams

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Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging mediators of tumorigenesis. We explored the function of melanoma-derived exosomes in the formation of primary tumors and metastases in mice and human subjects. Exosomes from highly metastatic melanomas increased the metastatic behavior of primary tumors by permanently 'educating' bone marrow progenitors through the(More)
Exosomes, small membrane vesicles (30-100 nm) of endocytic origin secreted by most cell types, contain functional biomolecules, which can be horizontally transferred to recipient cells [1]. Exosomes bear a specific protein and lipid composition, and carry a select set of functional mRNAs and microRNAs [2]. Recently, our group has shown that c-Met shed in(More)
Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are highly metastatic with poor prognosis, mainly due to delayed detection. We hypothesized that intercellular communication is critical for metastatic progression. Here, we show that PDAC-derived exosomes induce liver pre-metastatic niche formation in naive mice and consequently increase liver metastatic burden.(More)
Several Myb domain proteins have been identified in plants, in which they play important regulatory roles in specific cellular processes. Plant and animal Myb domains have significant differences, but how these differences are important for function is not yet understood. The P gene encodes a Myb domain protein that activates a subset of flavonoid(More)
The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in the maintenance of normal neurotransmission by serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]. Recent evidence suggests that SERT and other neurotransmitter transporters are tightly regulated. Activation of protein kinase C results in a decrease in SERT-mediated 5-HT uptake, which is due to an(More)
A central mechanism of tumour progression and metastasis involves the generation of an immunosuppressive 'macroenvironment' mediated in part through tumour-secreted factors. Here we demonstrate that upregulation of the Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1), in response to tumour-derived factors, such as TGFβ, is responsible for the switch from dendritic cell(More)
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