Caitlin Hammond

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PURPOSE The therapeutic effectiveness of cancer vaccines, composed of tumor antigens that are also self-antigens, may be limited by the normal mechanisms that preserve immunological tolerance. Consistent with this notion, we found that vaccination of melanoma patients with recombinant viral vaccines expressing gp100 (a melanoma antigen also expressed by(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that, under certain circumstances, the diaphragm does not contract as a homogeneous unit. These observations suggest that motor units may not be randomly distributed throughout the muscle but confined to localized subvolumes. In the present study, electromyographic (EMG) and glycogen depletion methods were combined to(More)
PURPOSE Tumor-reactive T cells were measured in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) because vaccines that increase the activity of these cells might lead to better disease control. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Proliferation and ELISPOT assays (for T cells producing IFN-gamma after stimulation by CD40-activated CLL cells) were used to determine the(More)
Previous anatomical descriptions of the diaphragm have contained several contradictory findings. To validate and extend the previous work, diaphragmatic architecture, histochemistry, and end-plate distribution were examined by use of a combination of anatomical methods, including fiber microdissections, cholinesterase staining, and enzyme histochemistry.(More)
The innate ability of B lymphoma cells to escape control by tumor-reactive T cells must be overcome to develop effective immunotherapies for these diseases. Because signals from both the innate and adaptive immune systems direct the acquisition of strong immunogenicity by professional APCs, the effects of IL-2 and the TLR-7 agonist, S28690, on the(More)
The musculotopic organisation of projections to the external cuneate nucleus (ECN) from the neck muscles splenius (SP) and biventer cervicis (BC) was examined electrophysiologically. These muscles are divided into a number of serially arranged compartments and are supplied by nerves from different cervical segments. About one-third of ECN neurons receive(More)
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