Caitlin E. Hoffman

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Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging mediators of tumorigenesis. We explored the function of melanoma-derived exosomes in the formation of primary tumors and metastases in mice and human subjects. Exosomes from highly metastatic melanomas increased the metastatic behavior of primary tumors by permanently 'educating' bone marrow progenitors through the(More)
A photo slit lamp was used to obtain color, specular reflex, high magnification photographs of the corneal endothelium of subjects ranging in age from 3 to 88 years. Multiple areas of the cornea were examined to determine the endothelial cell population. No appreciable difference in cell density was found between the right and left eyes of the subjects nor(More)
The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon-driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with 'humanized' in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated,(More)
BACKGROUND Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with associated aneurysms (AA) increase the risk of hemorrhage in adults. Associated aneurysms are thought to develop over time, and the incidence in children, therefore, has been thought to be minimal, although this has not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE To define the incidence and morbidity of AA in children and(More)
OBJECTIVES To ascertain the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids on biochemical and histopathologic components of the inflammatory stage of wound healing. ANIMALS 30 purpose-bred Beagles. PROCEDURE Dogs were allotted to 5 groups of 6. Each group was fed a unique dietary fatty acid ratio of omega-6 to n-3--diet A, 5.3:1; diet B, 10.4:1; diet C,(More)
OBJECT The authors' aim in this study was to determine if standardizing the evaluation of intraoperative findings during endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) could predict patients with hydrocephalus in whom endoscopic treatment will fail and require ventriculoperitoneal shunt treatment. The creation of a uniform scale with predictive outcomes may reduce(More)
Changes from the 1970s to 2000s in phosphorus and chlorophyll levels, water transparency, zooplankton, and benthic communities in the upper, International Section of the St. Lawrence River were evaluated using trend data from limnological surveys. The influence of Lake Ontario as a source for riverine production was evident in the upper river. Total(More)
OBJECTIVE One previous case report has described the development of a Chiari I malformation in a child after fractionated radiation therapy to the anterior cranial base. The authors present an additional case of a 17-month-old girl treated for an isolated, malignant, rhabdoid tumor of the right neck with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgical exploration, and(More)
OBJECT Intraventricular anatomy has been detailed as it pertains to endoscopic surgery within the third ventricle, particularly for performing endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and endoscopic colloid cyst resection. The expanding role of endoscopic surgery warrants a careful appraisal of these techniques as they relate to frequent anatomical variants.(More)
Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the(More)