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Membrane water transport is critically involved in brain volume homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of brain edema. The cDNA encoding aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel protein was recently isolated from rat brain. We used immunocytochemistry and high-resolution immunogold electron microscopy to identify the cells and membrane domains that mediate water flux(More)
The most common mutation in human melanoma, BRAF(V600E), activates the serine/threonine kinase BRAF and causes excessive activity in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. BRAF(V600E) mutations are also present in benign melanocytic naevi, highlighting the importance of additional genetic alterations in the genesis of malignant tumours. Such changes(More)
The literature contains a single description of sensory perineuritis (Asbury et al 1972). These patients demonstrated a painful, distal, sensory neuropathy, and examination of peripheral nerve biopsies revealed focal thickening and inflammatory infiltrates of the perineurium. We report a patient with sensorimotor peripheral nerve dysfunction, accompanied by(More)
Male Wistar rats were presented with an everyday free choice between water and a morphine-sucrose solution. Following a 5-day baseline period animals were injected with either zimelidine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.), a neuronal serotonin uptake inhibitor, or Ringer's solution (2 ml/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days. Treatment with zimelidine was shown to(More)
Cancers contain a wide diversity of cell types that are defined by differentiation states, genetic mutations and altered epigenetic programmes that impart functional diversity to individual cells. Elevated tumour cell heterogeneity is linked with progression, therapy resistance and relapse. Yet, imaging of tumour cell heterogeneity and the hallmarks of(More)
Italy Users may view, print, copy, download and text and data-mine the content in such documents, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to the full Conditions of use: Author information The data discussed in this publication have been deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible(More)
The two major melanoma histologic subtypes, superficial spreading and nodular melanomas, differ in their speed of dermal invasion but converge biologically once they invade and metastasize. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that distinct molecular alterations arising in primary melanoma cells might persist as these tumors progress to invasion and metastasis.(More)
Multiplexing samples in sequencing experiments is a common approach to maximize information yield while minimizing cost. In most cases the number of samples that are multiplexed is determined by financial consideration or experimental convenience, with limited understanding on the effects on the experimental results. Here we set to examine the impact of(More)
The effect of blockage of 5-hydroxytryptamine and norepinephrine uptake on voluntary ethanol consumption in rats was investigated. It was demonstrated that attenuation of ethanol intake occurred only as a result of treatment with specific 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitors. These results suggested that increasing the availability of central(More)
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