Cai-yun Gao

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Accurately estimating the deformation of rock mass is a very important work for surveyors. Aiming at the limitation of the conventional grey GM (1,1) model, we propose that the structure methods of background value and the initial condition in grey GM(1,1) model have an important influence on this model’s precision and adaptableility. From this point of(More)
Plan control results of GPS surveying have been widely used in all kinds of engineering, while its height information is being studied at present. Because GPS height is the height above the WGS-84 ellipsoid, however, the normal height, which is the height above the geoid calculated by using the mean normal gravity along the plumb line, is used in(More)
Being a harmful component, systematic error should always be eliminated and compensated during the procedure of surveying data processing. With further development in science and technology of surveying and mapping, some researchers extract systematic error by penalized least squares method when such systematic error is not random variable, therefore gain(More)
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