Learn More
Synapses are asymmetric cellular adhesions that are critical for nervous system development and function, but the mechanisms that induce their formation are not well understood. We have previously identified thrombospondin as an astrocyte-secreted protein that promotes central nervous system (CNS) synaptogenesis. Here, we identify the neuronal(More)
Postnatal/adult neural stem cells (NSCs) within the rodent subventricular zone (SVZ; also called subependymal zone) generate doublecortin (Dcx)(+) neuroblasts that migrate and integrate into olfactory bulb circuitry. Continuous production of neuroblasts is controlled by the SVZ microenvironmental niche. It is generally thought that enhancing the neurogenic(More)
Astrocytes regulate synaptic connectivity in the CNS through secreted signals. Here we identified two astrocyte-secreted proteins, hevin and SPARC, as regulators of excitatory synaptogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Hevin induces the formation of synapses between cultured rat retinal ganglion cells. SPARC is not synaptogenic, but specifically antagonizes(More)
Thrombospondins 1 and 2 (TSP-1/2) belong to a family of extracellular glycoproteins with angiostatic and synaptogenic properties. Although TSP-1/2 have been postulated to drive the resolution of postischemic angiogenesis, their role in synaptic and functional recovery is unknown. We investigated whether TSP-1/2 are necessary for synaptic and motor recovery(More)
Proper establishment of synapses is critical for constructing functional circuits. Interactions between presynaptic neurexins and postsynaptic neuroligins coordinate the formation of synaptic adhesions. An isoform code determines the direct interactions of neurexins and neuroligins across the synapse. However, whether extracellular linker proteins can(More)
Dendritic spines are the primary recipients of excitatory synaptic input in the brain. Spine morphology provides important information on the functional state of ongoing synaptic transmission. One of the most commonly used methods to visualize spines is Golgi-Cox staining, which is appealing both due to ease of sample preparation and wide applicability to(More)
The role of phospholipids in the regulation of membrane trafficking and signaling is largely unknown. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a main component of the plasma membrane. Mutants in the Drosophila phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase 1 (CCT1), the rate-limiting enzyme in PC biosynthesis, show an altered phospholipid composition with reduced PC and increased(More)
Thrombospondins (TSPs) are a family of large, oligomeric multidomain glycoproteins that participate in a variety of biological functions as part of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Through their associations with a number of binding partners, TSPs mediate complex cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in such diverse processes as angiogenesis, inflammation,(More)
Astrocytes, through their close associations with synapses, can monitor and alter synaptic function, thus actively controlling synaptic transmission in the adult brain. Besides their important role at adult synapses, in the last three decades a number of critical findings have highlighted the importance of astrocytes in the establishment of synaptic(More)