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Unavoidable, natural contaminants in foods may have either chemical or biological origin. Mycotoxins—toxic secondary metabolites of fungi—are biological in origin. Despite efforts to control fungal contamination, toxigenic fungi are ubiquitous in nature and occur regularly in worldwide food supplies due to mold infestation of susceptible agricultural(More)
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) encompass a group of diseases affecting several mammalian species—mink, cats, sheep, goats, cattle, deer, and elk (Figure 1)—including humans. These diseases are transmissible because they are capable of being transferred from one animal to another, spongiform because they cause the appearance of sponge-like(More)
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