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Neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) may differ depending on age-of-onset. Our aim was to compare patients who differ in age-of-onset, while controlling for illness duration, and number of depressive episodes. By directly comparing early-(EOD) and late-onset (LOD) patients, we examined whether age-of-onset(More)
BACKGROUND Results of previous studies suggest that estrogen improves somatic and mild depressive symptoms experienced by perimenopausal women. This study investigated the efficacy of 17beta-estradiol for the treatment of clinically significant depressive disorders in endocrinologically confirmed perimenopausal women. METHODS Perimenopausal women (aged(More)
CONTEXT Transition to menopause has long been considered a period of increased risk for depressive symptoms. However, it is unclear whether this period is one of increased risk for major depressive disorder, particularly for women who have not had a previous episode of depression. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between the menopausal transition and(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have determined the impact of a lifetime history of major depression on an early transition to menopause. METHODS Reproductive and psychiatric interviews and early follicular-phase blood specimens were obtained at study enrollment and every 6 months during 36 months of follow-up from 332 women with and 644 women without a history of(More)
Throughout most of their lives, women are at greater risk for depression than men. Hormones and neurotransmitters share common pathways and receptor sites in areas of the brain linked to mood, particularly through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It has been hypothesized that women presenting with episodes of depression associated with reproductive(More)
OBJECTIVE The menopausal transition is marked by hormonal changes and is quite often accompanied by cognitive and emotional complaints. Recent data also suggest a heightened risk for depression. Little is known about the changes in emotional regulation that might contribute to the increased risk of depression in this population. The aim of this study was to(More)
OBJECTIVE Depression occurs more commonly during the menopausal transition in women with vasomotor symptoms (VMS) than in those without, but most women with VMS do not develop depression. It has been hypothesized that VMS are associated with depression because VMS lead to repeated awakenings, which impair daytime well-being. We aimed to determine if(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors examined the effect of a 4-week course of estrogen therapy on depression in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHOD Twenty-two depressed women who were either perimenopausal (N=10) or postmenopausal (N=12) received open-label treatment with transdermal 17beta-estradiol (100 micro g/day) for 4 weeks. The Montgomery-Asberg(More)
Women are at a higher risk than men of developing depression and anxiety and such increased risk might be particularly associated with reproductive cycle events. Recent evidence suggests that the transition to menopause may constitute a window of vulnerability for some women for the development of new onset and recurrent depression. Several biological and(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of desvenlafaxine therapy on functioning and well-being in major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD Total and individual item Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) scores from 8 double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week desvenlafaxine clinical trials were pooled. Scores(More)