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1. The trochanteral hair-plate afferents in the metathoracic leg of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, were stimulated electrically and at the same time intracellular recordings were made from either motoneurones, interneurones or afferent terminals within the methathoracic ganglion. 2. Activity in the hair-plate afferents evoked short latency excitatory(More)
Intracellular recordings were made from the neurites of interneurons and motoneurons in the metathoracic ganglion of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Many neurons were penetrated which failed to produce action potentials on the application of large depolarizing currents. Nevertheless, some of them strongly excited and/or inhibited slow motoneurons(More)
Gap junction channels are structurally distinct from other ion channels in that they comprise two hemichannels which interact head-to-head to form an aqueous channel between cells. Intercellular voltage differences together with increased intracellular concentrations of H+ and Ca2+ cause closure of these normally patent channels. The relative sensitivity to(More)
We describe functional and anatomical correlates of the reorganization of giant nerve fiber-mediated escape reflexes in body fragments of an aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, a species that reproduces asexually by fragmentation. Since fragments from any axial position always regenerate short heads (seven or eight segments long) and much longer(More)
The mechanical properties of the metacoxal muscle, 177d, in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, was investigated. The muscle exhibited a mean resting tension of 2.6 +/- 1.3g SD. Neurally evoked tension summed with the resting tension and the relaxation phase of the evoked tension varied from less than 1 s to several minutes. This residual tension varied(More)
Activity in dorsal giant interneurons of the cockroach initiates flight movements if leg contact with a substrate is prevented. The same interneurons initiate activity associated with running when leg contact is maintained. Thus, which one of two completely different behaviors the giant interneurons evoke depends on the presence or absence of leg contact.
An anion channel was isolated, using patch-clamp technique, from the basolateral membrane of goby intestinal epithelial cells. Single-channel conductance varied over a range from 20 to 90 pS. The channel was voltage-gated over the physiological range of cell membrane potential with depolarization increasing the proportion of time in the open state. There(More)
1. In 132 cockroaches the main leg nerve on one side (right), of the metathoracic segment was crossed to the opposite (left) side and allowed to regenerate. In 3-8 wk, 59% of the animals displayed reflex activity in the left leg (behaviorally demonstrated by leg withdrawal following tarsal stimulation). 2. EMGs from the femoral extensor revealed potentials(More)
1. We have identified a class of nonspiking interneurons which can control the frequency of ventilation in a graded manner. These frequency modulating interneurons (FMis) also receive synaptic inputs in-phase with the ventilatory motor output providing a functional positive feedback loop in the ventilatory system. The class of FMis is composed of three(More)