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Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. It is characterized by a progressive loss of dopamine in the substantia nigra and striatum. However, over 70% of dopaminergic neuronal death occurs before the first symptoms appear, which makes either early diagnosis or effective treatments extremely(More)
Melatonin is an indolamine mostly produced in the pineal gland, soluble in water, and highly lipophilic, which allows it to readily cross the blood-brain barrier. Melatonin possesses antioxidant properties and its long-term administration in rodents has not been found to cause noteworthy side effects. In the present work, we found that millimolar(More)
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds tend to start school with fewer school readiness skills than their more advantaged peers. Emergent literacy and math skills play an important role in this gap. The family is essential in(More)
Glucocorticoids are the main product of the adrenal cortex and participate in multiple cell functions as immunosupressors and modulators of neural function. Within the brain, glucocorticoid activity is mediated by high-affinity mineralocorticoid and low-affinity glucocorticoid receptors. Among brain cells, hippocampal cells are rich in glucocorticoid(More)
Oxidative stress has been shown to mediate neuron damage in Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present report, we intend to clarify the intracellular pathways mediating dopaminergic neuron death after oxidative stress production using post-mitotic PC12 cells treated with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The use of post-mitotic cells is crucial,(More)
Inflammation is a complex phenomenon involving multiple cellular and molecular interactions which must be tightly regulated. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the two sequential steps in the biosynthesis of PGs from arachidonic acid. The inducible isoform of COX, namely COX-2, plays a critical role in the inflammatory response and its(More)
Parkinson's disease is a chronic condition characterized by cell death of dopaminergic neurons mainly in the substantia nigra. Among the several experimental models used in mice for the study of Parkinson's disease 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine- (MPTP-) induced parkinsonism is perhaps the most commonly used. This neurotoxin has classically(More)
Parkinson's disease has been widely related to both apoptosis and oxidative stress. Many publications relate the loss of mitochondrial potential to an apoptosis-mediated cell death in different in vivo and in vitro models of this pathology. The present study used the dopaminegic specific neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+) ) on neuron-like PC12(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the risk and probability of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 from infected people taking combined antiretroviral treatment. DESIGN Cross sectional and prospective cohort studies. SETTING HIV clinic in Madrid, Spain. PARTICIPANTS Stable heterosexual couples with one partner with HIV-1 infection (index partner) and the other(More)
BACKGROUND Current histo-pathological prognostic factors are not very helpful in predicting the clinical outcome of breast cancer due to the disease's heterogeneity. Molecular profiling using a large panel of genes could help to classify breast tumours and to define signatures which are predictive of their clinical behaviour. METHODS To this aim,(More)