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A randomized trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in treatment-resistant major depression.
Robust and rapid antidepressant effects resulted from a single intravenous dose of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist; onset occurred within 2 hours postinfusion and continued to remain significant for 1 week.
Cellular Mechanisms Underlying the Antidepressant Effects of Ketamine: Role of α-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methylisoxazole-4-Propionic Acid Receptors
NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites
It is shown that the metabolism of (R,S)-ketamine to (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) is essential for its antidepressant effects, and that the HNK enantiomer exerts behavioural, electroencephalographic, electrophysiological and cellular antidepressant-related actions in mice.
Targeting the glutamatergic system to develop novel, improved therapeutics for mood disorders
- G. Sanacora, C. Zarate, J. Krystal, H. Manji
- Psychology, BiologyNature Reviews Drug Discovery
- 1 May 2008
There is growing evidence that the glutamatergic system is central to the neurobiology and treatment of mood disorders and exciting new prospects for the development of improved therapeutics for these devastating disorders are discussed.
A randomized add-on trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in treatment-resistant bipolar depression.
In patients with treatment-resistant bipolar depression, robust and rapid antidepressant effects resulted from a single intravenous dose of an N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antagonist.
Replication of Ketamine's Antidepressant Efficacy in Bipolar Depression: A Randomized Controlled Add-On Trial
Rapid resolution of suicidal ideation after a single infusion of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.
- N. Diazgranados, Lobna A Ibrahim, C. Zarate
- Psychology, MedicineThe Journal of clinical psychiatry
- 13 July 2010
Suicidal ideation in the context of MDD improved within 40 minutes of a ketamine infusion and remained improved for up to 4 hours postinfusion.
Enhancing neuronal plasticity and cellular resilience to develop novel, improved therapeutics for Difficult-to-Treat depression
Ketamine for Depression: Where Do We Go from Here?
Ketamine and Ketamine Metabolite Pharmacology: Insights into Therapeutic Mechanisms
Pharmacological target deconvolution of ketamine and its metabolites will provide insight critical to the development of new pharmacotherapies that possess the desirable clinical effects of ketamines, but limit undesirable side effects.