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Genome sequence and analysis of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans
The sequence of the P. infestans genome is reported, which at ∼240 megabases (Mb) is by far the largest and most complex genome sequenced so far in the chromalveolates and probably plays a crucial part in the rapid adaptability of the pathogen to host plants and underpins its evolutionary potential.
The C-terminal half of Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector AVR3a is sufficient to trigger R3a-mediated hypersensitivity and suppress INF1-induced cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana.
Structural-function experiments indicated that the 75-amino acid C-terminal half of AVR3aKI, which excludes the RXLR region, is sufficient for avirulence and suppression functions, consistent with the view that the N- terminal region of A VR3AKI and other RXLR effectors is involved in secretion and targeting but is not required for effector activity.
In Planta Expression Screens of Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effectors Reveal Diverse Phenotypes, Including Activation of the Solanum bulbocastanum Disease Resistance Protein Rpi-blb2[W]
The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans is predicted to secrete hundreds of effector proteins and it is revealed that 16 of the 62 examined effectors cause phenotypes when expressed inside plant cells, and structure-function experiments indicated that a 34–amino acid region in the C-terminal half of AVRblb2 is sufficient for triggering Rpi-blb 2 hypersensitivity.
Effector Genomics Accelerates Discovery and Functional Profiling of Potato Disease Resistance and Phytophthora Infestans Avirulence Genes
The findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering ofLate blight resistant potato varieties.
The Malarial Host-Targeting Signal Is Conserved in the Irish Potato Famine Pathogen
These studies provide the first evidence to the authors' knowledge that eukaryotic microbes share equivalent pathogenic HT signals and thus conserved mechanisms to access host cells across plant and animal kingdoms that may present unique targets for prophylaxis across divergent pathogens.
Plant-Symbiotic Fungi as Chemical Engineers: Multi-Genome Analysis of the Clavicipitaceae Reveals Dynamics of Alkaloid Loci
The organization and dynamics of alkaloid loci and abundant repeat blocks in the epichloae suggested that these fungi are under selection for alkaloids diversification, and it is suggested that such selection is related to the variable life histories of the epICHloae, their protective roles as symbionts, and their associations with the highly speciose and ecologically diverse cool-season grasses.
Chemotypic diversity of epichloae, fungal symbionts of grasses
Elimination of ergovaline from a grass–Neotyphodium endophyte symbiosis by genetic modification of the endophyte
- D. Panaccione, Richard D Johnson, C. Schardl
- Biology, MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 9 October 2001
Disruption of this gene provides a means to manipulate the accumulation of ergovaline in endophyte-infected grasses for the purpose of determining the roles of ergopeptine inendophytes-associated traits and, potentially, for ameliorating toxicoses in livestock.
Molecular cloning and genetic analysis of an indole‐diterpene gene cluster from Penicillium paxilli
Targeted replacement of paxG confirmed that it is essential for paxilline biosynthesis but dispensable for growth, and the first description of the molecular cloning and genetic analysis of an indole‐diterpene gene cluster is described.
Indole-Diterpene Biosynthetic Capability of Epichloë Endophytes as Predicted by ltm Gene Analysis
- C. Young, B. Tapper, K. May, C. Moon, C. Schardl, B. Scott
- ChemistryApplied and Environmental Microbiology
- 30 January 2009
Analysis of toxin biosynthesis genes by PCR now enables a diagnostic method to screen endophytes for both beneficial and detrimental alkaloids and can be used as a resource for screening isolates required for forage improvement.